The History of Abnormal Psychology. 2. CHAPTER 2. Understanding Psychological Disorders. 32. CHAPTER 3. Clinical Diagnosis and Assessment.
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Throughout Rosenberg and Kosslyn’s Abnormal Psychology , you will fi nd discussions of “feedback loops,” highlighting the way neurological, psychological, and social factors interact to contribute to psychopathology. Feedback Loops icons and Feedback Loops fi gures accompany this coverage. Feedback Loops IconsYou will see feedback loops icons in the margin of a page next to a discussion of the feedback loop for a particular psychopathology-related phenomenon. Feedback Loops Icons• Make it easy to locate discussions of the interplay of different factors for a specifi c type of psychopathology • Indicate with boldfaced initials which factors— Neurological, Psychological, Social—are associated with a given psychological disorder. • Indicate with outer arrows which factors— Neurological, Psychological, Social—are directly targeted by a given treatment. • Indicate with boldfaced initials which other factor(s) are most directly affected— through feedback loops—by a particular treatment. FEEDBACK LOOPS A Guide to Feedback Loops Art Researchers have also discovered ethnic differences in how patients perceive critical and intrusive family behaviors. Among black American families, for instance, behaviors by family members that focus on problem solving are associ-ated with a better outcome for the schizophrenic individual, perhaps because the behavior is interpreted as refl ecting caring and concern (Rosenfarb, Bellack, & Aziz, 2006). Thus, what is important is not the family behavior in and of itself, but how such behavior is perceived and interpreted by family members. SPNIPT thus is designed to improve current relationships and social functioning in gen- eral. Although IPT was originally developed to treat depression, the idea behind IPT for eating disorders is that as problems with relationships resolve, symptoms decrease, even though the symptoms are not addressed directly by the treatment (Swartz, 1999; Tantleff-Dunn, Gokee-LaRose, & Peterson, 2004). How does IPT work? The hypothesized mechanism is as follows: (1) IPT re-duces longstanding interpersonal problems; and (2) the resulting improvement of relationships makes people feel hopeful and empowered, and increases their self- esteem. These changes have four effects: First, they lead people to change other aspects of their lives, such as disordered eating; second, they lead to less concern about appearance and weight, and therefore less dieting and bingeing (Fairburn, 1997); third, as relationships improve, people have more social contact and hence less time to engage in disordered eating behaviors; and fi nally, with less interper- sonal stress, people don’t need to expend as much effort on coping and have less need for bingeing and purging to manage their (less frequent) negative feelings.SPN

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Feedback Loops Figures At the end of the “Understanding” and the “Treating” sections for each major disorder in the edition, you will usually fi nd a Feedback Loops capstone section—e.g., Feedback Loops in Action: Understanding Schizophreni a and Feedback Loops in Treatment: Schizophrenia —which include fi gures that illustrate how feedback loops work and the interactions among the various factors. Feedback Loops in Action Figures • Summarize the neurological, psychological, and social factors that are associated with a given disorder • Illustrate the dynamic interactive nature of the factors• Provide a recurring illustrative format, which allows students to compare and contrast the specifi c factors of the feedback loops across disorders Figure 12.5 g5Mental Processes and Mental Contents BehaviorAffectBrain Systems GeneticsInheritedvulnerability forschizophreniaspectrumdisordersNeural Communication Stressful Life Events Family Gender/Culture Neuro PsychoSocialNeuroPsycho SocialNeuro PsychoSocialCognitive deficitsPoor insight Negative beliefs about self and abilitiesFlat affectDisorganized speech and behaviorFrontal lobes Temporal lobesThalamus HippocampusDopamineSerotonin Glutamate CortisolImpaired theory of mind, which leads to difficulty understanding nonverbal communication of othersGrowing up in an orphanageDysfunctional family communicationHigh expressed emotionImmigrationDiscriminationDifferential recovery rates across culturesFigure 12.6 gTreatments Targeting Neurological Factors Medication: traditional and atypical antipsychotics ECTChanges neural activityChanges thoughts, feelings and behaviorsDecreases family conflict and family members’ critical behaviorImproves social interactions and ability to work and live more independently Treatments Targeting Social Factors Family therapy and educationSocial skills training Residential treatment Vocational rehabilitation CBT Cognitive rehabilitation Motivational enhancementTreatments Targeting Psychological Factors Feedback Loops in Treatment Figures • Summarize the neurological, psychological, and social treatments for a given disorder • Illustrate the interactive nature of successful treatment • Provide a recurring illustrative format, which allows students to compare and contrast the specifi c factors involved in treatment feedback loops across disorders

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Grateful acknowledgment is given for permission to reprint the following art: p. 1: Nicolas Wilton; p. 32: Leigh Wells; p. 70: Michael Gillette/Heart Agency; p. 108: Diane Fenster; p. 152: Bruno Mallart/; p. 190: Alan Witschonke; p. 246: Don Kilpatrick/Morgan Gaynin; p. 330: Noma Bliss; p. 380: Richard Tuschman/Stock Illustration Source; p. 434: Katherine Streeter/Frank Sturges Reps; p. 472: Stephen Tunney; p. 518: Craig LaRotonda/Revelation Art; p. 564: Illustration by Sean Rodway/ Photography by Paul Hampartsoumian/Advocate Art; p. 624: Alan Baker/Heart Agency; p. 680: Dave Cutler; p. 716: Clifford Alejandro.The Permissions and Attributions section (page P-1 at the back of this book) constitutes an extension of this copyright page. Grateful acknowledgment is given for the use of all quotations and previously published material.Senior Publisher: Catherine Woods Acquisitions Editor: Erik Gilg Executive Marketing Manager: Katherine Nurre Associate Director of Market Development: Carlise Stembridge Development Editor: Jim Strandberg Media and Supplements Editor: Sharon Prevost Photo Editor: Christine Buese Photo Researcher: Patricia Cateura Art Director, Cover Designer: Babs Reingold Interior Designers: Babs Reingold and Charles Yuen Layout Designer: Paul Lacy Associate Managing Editor: Tracey Kuehn Project Editors: Dana Kasowitz Jenna Gray, Pre-PressPMG Illustration Coordinators: Bill Page, Eleanor Jaekel Illustrations: Pre-PressPMG, Keith Kasnot, Chris Notarile, Matt Holt Production Manager: Barbara Anne Seixas Composition: Pre-PressPMG Printing and Binding: Worldcolor Versailles Cover Art: Let me show you the world in my eyes. Eric CeccariniLibrary of Congress Control Number: 2009921876 ISBN-13: 978-0-7167-1728-7ISBN-10: 0-7167-1728-X© 2011 by Worth Publishers All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America First printing 2010Worth Publishers 41 Madison Avenue New York, NY 10010

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Robin S. Rosenberg is a clinical psychologist in private practice and has taught psychology courses at Lesley University and Harvard University. In addition, she is coauthor (with Stephen Kosslyn) of Psychology in Context and Fundamentals of Psychology in Context. She is theeditor of Psychology of Superheroes and a contributor to The Psychology of Harry Potter andBatmanUnauthorized . She is board certifi ed in clinical psychology by the American Board of Professional Psychology, and has been certifi ed in clinical hypnosis; she is a fellow of the American Academy of Clinical Psychology and a member of the Academy for Eating Disorders. She received her B.A. in psychology from New York University and her M.A. and Ph.D. in clinical psychology from the University of Maryland, College Park. Dr. Rosenberg completed her clinical internship at Massachusetts Mental Health Center and had a postdoctoral fellowship at Harvard Community Health Plan before joining the staff at Newton-Wellesley Hospital’s Outpatient Services, where she worked before leaving to expand her private practice. Dr. Rosenberg specializes in treating people with depression, anxiety, and eating disorders, and she is interested in the integration of different therapy approaches. She was the founder and coordinator of the New England Society for Psychotherapy Integration. Dr. Rosenberg enjoys using superhero stories to illustrate psychological principles and can sometimes be found at comic book conventions. Stephen M. Kosslyn is the John Lindsley Professor of Psychology and former chair of the Department of Psychology at Harvard University, as well as former Head Tutor (directing the undergraduate program in Psychology). He currently is Dean of Social Science at Harvard as well as Associate Psychologist in the Department of Neurology at the Massachusetts General Hospital. He received a B.A. from UCLA and a Ph.D. from Stanford University, both in psychology. His research has focused primarily on the nature of visual mental imagery, visual perception, and visual communication; he has authored or coauthored 9 books and over 300 papers on these topics. Kosslyn has received the APA’s Boyd R. McCandless Young Scientist Award, the National Academy of Sciences Initiatives in Research Award, the Cattell Award, a Guggenheim Fellowship, the J-L. Signoret Prize (France), and an honorary Doctorate of Science from the University of Caen (France), and he has been elected to Academia Rodinensis pro Remediatione (Switzerland), the Society of Experimental Psychologists, and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Kosslyn works hard, but not every waking moment; his hobbies are bass guitar (he has played rock-and-roll and blues with the same group for many years) and French (he has struggled with the language ever since living in France for a year in 1996). ABOUT THE AUTHORS vi

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BRIEF CONTENTS Preface xxi CHAPTER 1 The History of Abnormal Psychology 2CHAPTER 2 Understanding Psychological Disorders 32CHAPTER 3 Clinical Diagnosis and Assessment 70CHAPTER 4 Foundations of Treatment 108 CHAPTER 5 Researching Abnormality 152 CHAPTER 6 Mood Disorders and Suicide 190 CHAPTER 7 Anxiety Disorders 246CHAPTER 8 Dissociative and Somatoform Disorders 330CHAPTER 9 Substance Use Disorders 380 CHAPTER 10 Eating Disorders 434 CHAPTER 11 Gender and Sexual Disorders 472 CHAPTER 12 Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders 518CHAPTER 13 Personality Disorders 566 CHAPTER 14 Childhood Disorders 624 CHAPTER 15 Cognitive Disorders 680CHAPTER 16 Ethical and Legal Issues 716 Glossary G-1 References R-1 Permissions and Attributions P-1 Name Index NI-1 Subject Index SI-1 vii

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