The paper portrays Salinger’s novel, The Catcher in the Rye, where Holden Caulfield, the protagonist, is a teenager who perceives the world as a hostile place,

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International Journal of Innovation, Creativity and Change. Volume 13, Issue 9, 2020 327 The Trauma of Alienation in J. D. , T he Catcher in the Rye Hameed Mana Daikh a , a Dept. of English, College of Education University of AL – Qadisiyah. Iraq , Email: a, Alienation is a sense of isolation from people or society, which can occur for different reasons, especially among teenagers. These complexities affe ct them when they grow up. Adolescents alienate themselves from their surroundings to feel independency accompanied by the feeling that they are unfit for their world or they find it is difficult for them to explain what they want or feel. They think that their ideas are hard for others to understand , so they seek to alienate or isolate themselves from others. They have rebellious spirits against social conventions, politics, and religion , to the extent that this rebellious tendency, sometimes, may be come v iolent. As a result, they will hunker down and construct their own world away from the world of being grown up. The paper portrays Salinger’s novel , The Catcher in the Rye , where Holden Caulfield, the protagonist, is a teenage r who perceives the world as a hostile place , where he has no connection or relation with society or even with his family. His actions and behaviours show that he is an adolescent who expresses his deep est apprehensions and cynicism in a world he feels he is a stranger and is unfit to live in. He tends to make critical decisions in certain situations , but he ponders over tak ing decisive actions and he feels powerless because of specific obstacles , includ ing family, conventions, and traditions. Holden distance s himself from others , and his relationships are limited to his sister , Phoebe , whom he adores and represents the only world where he feels secure. The motives of Holden behav iour are numerous, but one of them is the sense of the child that lives in the depth of his psyche. He wants to be the defender of the child innocence and childhood because he thinks that the world of children is pure and uncorrupted, and is removed from social fabricated norm s reali s ation that maturity means to bear responsibility of indulging the world of the grown up and accept the shallowness of the disorgani s ed world. Holden is not a superhero who can elimina te all ambiguities and deterioration in the world. However, he can share the world and be part of his community, which he refuses before this stage. The lesson he receives in the last part of the novel is that life is a kind of riddle,

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International Journal of Innovation, Creativity and Change. Volume 13, Issue 9, 2020 328 which can be decoded and understood only when Holden is able to learn from his mistakes and accepts others with love. Key words: T rauma, A lienation, L oneliness, C orruption, R ye . Introduction There is no doubt that literature is the mirror of life, which reflects all human themes and topics. Literature , as with other sciences , develops and changes to cope with the fluctuations of time. The first step here is to introduce and define certain concepts that are borrowed from other sciences , especially psycholo gy , to provide a broader understanding of the paper. The first is the term trauma . It has a Latin origin from the word rauma , which is taken from the Greek word Traumatikos . It means a wound of the body that is serious , but it is not limited to only physical wounds , as it can refer to any major emotion al wound that leads to psychological harm or an incident, which in turn leads to observable pain or it is an emotional response to a terrible event that describes events th at cause suffering, sorrow, and agony , and overcomes the ability of an individual to bear or to handle ( Abubakar & Abubakar, 2017 ). The other concept that is encompassed in th is , which means the feelings of separation and distancing of the individual from people or the self . It is referred to in certain sciences , such as philosophy, the social sciences, and literature , that are the essential point of contemporary life. The prevalent reference of the concept is derived from the German philosopher , Hegel. Hegel posits that from the gap between human consciousness and the natural world, between the inner world and the outer world (Edward Quinn, 2006). 2010) , T he Catc her in the Rye (1945 1946) , is referred to as a psychological work that depend s entirely up on the interpretation of Holden , who discloses incidents that are later explained by the hero. Moreover, the readers will grasp the results of these actions on Holde of episodes , ha s taken flashbacks as a major means , in addition to an unlimited number of digressions that enrich the details of the work. The function of the digressions is to provide a profound understanding of the different events and characters who encounter Holden throughout the novel , and how he reacts to them. The author employs digre ssions to give detailed description s about the protagonist , and the way he perceives these details. The entire narration of the novel occurs within a period of four days . During this period, Holden has made his choice to quit school at Pencey Prep before t he declaration of his official dismissal. After this incident, he decides to hang around for a few days in New York and begins his odyssey by himself . Subsequently, he must manage how to encounter his family with this disturbing news after finally return in g home. Eventually, when he returns home, he suffer s an

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International Journal of Innovation, Creativity and Change. Volume 13, Issue 9, 2020 329 emotional and psychological breakdown , which leads him to settle in a psychiatric institution to rest and to be treated (Harold Bloom, 2007). The sense of alienation and disaffection fills all aspect , especially his relations with his parents and sister , and h is opinion s towards feelings as love , and relations as marriage or toward s systemati s ed religious conviction. Th is sense of estrangement inflicts Holden from the beginning of th e novel ; he feels himself alienated from his parents, society, and the world. In the city, , so he is not suffering from the material, but he is distressed and ashamed by his school disappointments. Though he is detached from all his family members, he loves his younger sister , Phoebe , whom he appreciates greatly, and he considers her as a peaceful resort. As for his older brother D. B., he thinks that he is sold out when he goes to Hollywood to present his movie scripts for producers , and he is indirectly significant to his family for moving him around from one : over the cliff (Harold Bloom, 2009). Holden is fighting with all his power to reserve the innocence of childhood. He is unable to p erceive or understand and he fails to accept that being mature means the loss of that innocence . H e is on the path that leads to that world, where there is no friend or family to stop or hold him from falling (J. D. Salinger, 1991) . of the deceptive and fruitless attempt that causes his personal life to be come totally distinct, and the irrationality of attempting to thwart the loss or distortion of innocence, does not halt him to continue attempting to eliminate the vulgarities he en counters himself , as referred to by the critic , Ihab Hassan , who stated that : picaresque the book shows itself to be concerned far less with the education or imitati on of an adolescent than with a dramatic exposure of the manner in which ideals are denied accuse to our lives and of the modes which mendacity assumes in our urban culture. The moving, even stabbling qualities of the novel derive, even to some extent, fro satirical stance. The work, instead, confirms the saving grace of vulnerability, its protest, debunking and indictments presuppose a willing responsiveness on the part of its hero (Sarah Graham, 2007) . on the support of his deceased brother as an indication of developing irrationality rather than an imaginative protection of himself. Throughout the novel, several times Holden refers to

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International Journal of Innovation, Creativity and Change. Volume 13, Issue 9, 2020 330 , but it is also the essence of that dilemma of alienation : job it was, thou – goddam stupid useless conversations with anybody ( The Catcher in the Rye , 106). Holden the community , but in completely different conditions. He sees himself as part of society physically , but mentally he is outside it . This image highlights the passivity of contem porary institutes and the absence of meaning in the modern languages . Moreover, this situation is clearly identified through his continuous images of sketches and vulgarities scratched on the hard , external surfaces. The sense of loneliness and estrangemen t creates (Harold Bloom, 2008) The Catcher in the Rye , 110). The trauma of Holden is not due to a physical or mental defect , but it is a consequence of th e familial disintegration, the social structure, and the sense of estrangement in the battle of life. The clashing thinking of establishing himself as an independent entity , and his critical age , help to develop that agoni s ed sense of trauma, which make hi m look at life as being absurd and meaningless. Holden is understanding death personally; his obsession with death is the key reason for his estrange ment and alienat ion step towards his journey to discover his true self. He perceives the world around him as a source of menace for him and death is loitering in every place. Throughout the novel, Holden , and therefore he continued to be reproachful of them as hyp ocrites (Sarah Graham, 2007) : As soon as I got my breath back I ran across Route 204. It was icy as hell and I damn near fell down. I don’t even know what I was running for — I guess I just felt like it. After I got across the road, I felt like I was sor t of disappearing. It was that kind of a crazy afternoon, terrifically cold, and no sun out or anything, and you felt like you were disappearing every time you crossed a road ( The Catcher in the Rye , 3). To fill the gap between Holden and the community, h e introduces his personal world as a sacrifice to attempt the world he dismisses. In the midst of this world of untrue morals, , discovers that the sense of taste is not sufficient. He carries the spirit of a rebel, so he rises against the world

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International Journal of Innovation, Creativity and Change. Volume 13, Issue 9, 2020 331 and life of adults that misfit his ambitions. However , that kind of uprising is enveloped in the form of escapism from this life. He himse lf totally rejects the idea of being an adult and thinks that it is better for him to maintain his innocence than be corrupted by the adult world (Zekkour Mohammed, 2016). Holden thinks that he has a rebellious spirit and mind, but when we see his action s, we do not believe there is a match between actions and words. Most of time, he has that transparent observation of his surrounding , and he is able to pinpoint deceptive phonies and dishonesty everywhere. The arguments he makes about different mistaken a spects in society , might make him an ideal person who has the courage to fight the dishonesty of his world . However, at the same time he is not that man who has the guts to cope himself with his own ideals. Even the name of Holden is an important reference for the person he carries. The word caul refers to the tissue that envelops the f o etus body , especially the head when the woman gives birth. Therefore, the caul part of his name could denote an inability to see clearly the lure to comprehend the complication of the grown – up world. Another reading for his name could be viewed as Hold – on Caul – field which means that he wants to grasp everything he observes in similar way to his innocence , and that is truly his inability to p erceive the actual real world (R. Thiruvalluvan , 2007). Holden makes use of his alienation in the sense that he employs it as his way of protecting himself. Sometimes , we judge him according to his conduct , such as wearing the red hat for hunting, which r efers to his individuality and independence. He is convince d that isolating people would be an evidence for him and others that he has a privilege over others in the community (Sparknotes editors, 2020). Therefore, he secluded himself from conversing or co mmunicating with them. The fact remains that communications with the community members typically causes confusion which devastates him , and the sceptical feeling of supremacy offers him a kind of self – alienation becomes the cause of his fragile tranquillity in his turmoiled life. At the same time, we can deduce, as is also the reason of the greater part of his agony. He does not reveal his own passions in a direct way , or he tries to find out where his dilemmas come from or is even unable to identify why he encounters such troubles. His situation is not easy to anal y s e because we know that he is badly in need of interacti on with in society to acquire stability and love, but his superiority and the wall he has built, which is full of resentment , thwarts him from searching for such contact. The consequence of alienatio n is that it becomes his motivation to be strong , and at the same time , it also causes him difficulties and troubles. For instance, his solitude stimulates him to have a date with Sally Hayes, but also the same isolation motivates him to offend her and pus h her away. In the same vein, he yearns for a purposeful interaction when he me e t s Jane Gallagher . N onetheless, he is very hesitant to take a real step further to interact with or at least , call her.

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International Journal of Innovation, Creativity and Change. Volume 13, Issue 9, 2020 332 He believes in his alienation more than his belief in hi s religion, but it fails and disappoints him (Lingdi Chen, 20 05 ). Holden has manifested several times his despair, disbelief, and distrust in the world of adults. This experience is an outcome of his feelings of loss and rejection of all social convention s: Oh. . . well, about Life being a game and all. And how you should play it according to the rules. He was pretty nice about it. I mean he didn’t hit the ceiling or anything. He just kept me, boy. Life is a game that game. If you get on the side where all the hot – that. But if you get on the other side – about it? Nothing. No game ( The Catcher in the Rye , 5). The conversation shows the fragile belief of Holden in everything around him. His former teacher is attempting to explain to , reminding him about his failures at the school. This conversation concisely highlights the important traits of personality. Even if he does not speak, his silence speaks louder than his words , especially when we interpret his silence as hatred for grownups . This was manifested through his silence mocking and swearing at Spencer, which he conceals under his nodding , in a deep shout of agony. The feeling that the world is against him makes him evidently recogni s kind of equation increases his sense of loneliness and victimi s ation. In this stage of the novel, the feeling of loss and bitterness that Holden carries , causes him to be queer and unidentifiable in certain conditions where he cannot fi nd a reasonable justification for his conduct , especially when he remembers that he is a member of a reputed New York family. Yet, as the novel develops, the readers can observe that Holden has acquired and constructed some sort of sceptical psychological immunity around him to defend himself from the peculiarities of his surroundings (Kenneth Slawenski, 2010). The protagonist fails to establish strong and healthy relationships with people surrounding him. The failure is because of his sense of superiority or being different from them. This false feeling expands the gap and constructs a veil between him and others. The seclusion he makes for himself helps to alienate him from the whole of social life. We can see throughout the novel that he interacts with m any people , but at the same time , he likes isolation and being alone . Moreover, even in these relationships, for him, they are shallow and unauthentic. his last hours in the school roami ng aimlessly (Harold Bloom, 2009).

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International Journal of Innovation, Creativity and Change. Volume 13, Issue 9, 2020 334 in a passive way. The passivity hovers over the novel, which reflects his paraly s ed understanding . It creates an impression that Holden is an unreliable narrator for the biased narrative view that he offers. Moreover, his understanding of the notion of love is similarly influenced by this trauma , so Hol den reject s love for any reason , al though he shows several indications in his conduct that refers to his real wish is to be accepted and to exchange love with others, but he also shows an inability to communicate with others. Holden appears to be a very se nsitive character, where he has actual polari s ed feelings, which take one side of happiness or sadness. In order to balance his emotions, and given that he lacks a guide that will lead him in the jungle of life, he has a close girl who helps him to underst and the world , plays this mother – like role, which helps to maintain his mental safety and better than he does. This does not indicate that the mother – like figure saves him from the confl icts of adult hood , as she only lowers hi s traumatic emotive anxiety , and somehow , keeps him stable. Moreover, Holden feels that he is overcome by the grown – up world that appears to be controlled by a dishonesty , and which he is not ready to accept. Holden attempts to step wide ly to rescue children from the inevitable collapse towards dishonesty and corruption. We observe that he emphasi s es his uncertainties on others who are innocent and pure.

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International Journal of Innovation, Creativity and Change. Volume 13, Issue 9, 2020 335 References Abdulsattar Abdulatif , Iman . (2013) . Alienation in Adolescence in J.D. Sa linger’s The Catcher in the Rye. Journal of the College of Languages (JCL), No 27 . Abubakar , Sadiya .( August 2017) Art as Narrative: Recounting Trauma through Literature. IRA – International Journal of Management & Social Sciences . Bloom , Harold. (2007). The Catcher in the Rye . Info base publishing. Bloom , Harold. (2008). : J.D. Salinger . Infobase publishing. Bloom , Harold. (2009). Catcher in the Rye . Info base publishing. Bloom , Harold. (2009). . Inforbase Publishing, Chen , Lingdi . (May 2005). An Analysis of the Adolescent Problems in The Catcher in the Rye . Journal of Asian Social Sciences , Vol.5, No. 5.. Graham , Sarah. (2007). . Routledge Guides to Literature . Meriem , Zekkour Mohammed. (2016). An Existentialist analysis of J.D .Salinger’s The Catcher in the Rye (Mas KASDI MERBAH UNIVERSITY – OUARGLA . Quinn, Edward. (2006) Literary and Thematic Terms . Facts on File. Salinger , J.D. (1991). the Catcher in the Rye . Brown and Company. All further quotes are taken from this edition. Slawenski , Kenneth . (2009). J.D.Salinger: A Life . Random House. Sparknotes editors. (2020). J.D.Salinger: The Catcher in the Rye . www.sparknot . Thiruvalluvan , R. (Jan, 2007). The Theme of Alienation in the Novels of J.D. Salinger. The Indian Review of World Literature in English , Vol. 3, No. I.

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