al-Madina and Arabia’s Hajj before and under the Islam, but little attention has 6- The Islamic media delegation which visit Saudi Arabia during the Hajj
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The Hajj: Past, Present, and Future “The Communication Aspect” By cAkeel Ibrahim al-Ken n/ Submitted in accordance with the requirements for the degree of Ph. D. The University of Leeds Institute of Communications Studies September 1995 The candidate. confirms that the work submitted is his own work and that appropriate credit has been given where reference has been made to the work of others.

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In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. ” And proclaim unto all people the (duty of) pilgrimage: they will come unto thee among on foot and on every (kind of) fast mounted, coming from every far-away point (on earth) so that they might experience much that shall be of benefit to them and that they might extol the name of God on the days appointed (for sacrifice) over whatever heads of cattle He may have provided for thew, Qur’an. 22: 27-28.

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i Abstract It is the aim of this thesis to investigate the work of the Saudi Arabian media and the information services in relation to the Hajj, to examine their policies, procedures and problems faced by them, and to propose solutions and improvements. The basic objective of this study during the Hajj is to examine how the Saudi Arabian media can serve more effectively the needs of the pilgrims, with their different cultures and languages. An historical examination of the evolution of the Hajj, the services and the media form the background and context for the examination of the current position. The following research methods were adopted: 1- Group discussions and interviews were carried out amongst some of the Islamic media visiting the Hajj in order to highlight any problems and concerns about the work of the Saudi Arabian media during the Hajj. 2- A content analysis of the Saudi Arabian newspapers during the Hajj season was carried out using a quota sampling procedure. In total 434 articles were studied using nine coding categories. 3- The content and form of Saudi Arabian radio and television programmes, Hajj handbooks, cassettes and video tapes provided for the pilgrims were analysed. 4- The daily routine of the average pilgrim during the 1993 Hajj season was observed. This work is divided into eight chapters. The Introduction (Chapter One) covers a statement of the problems, aims of the study and gives the various sources of information. In Chapter Two the historical background of the city of Mecca and the Kaaba is discussed, thus providing the historical aspects of the Hajj. The Saudi Arabian Royal Family and the Hajj are discussed in Chapter Three with respect to the importance of the Hajj as a religious obligation. Chapter Four examines the present Saudi Arabian official Hajj policy and procedures, the ministries and committees administering the Hajj and their terms of reference, and specific problems related to the Muslim calendar, weather, transport, accommodation, food, health, and security. Chapter Five is’ devoted to the development of the Saudi Arabian media and their coverage of the Hau. Chapter Six analyses the problems which face the Saudi Arabian media during the Hai. Chapter Seven deals with proposed solutions. Finally, conclusions are presented regarding the main features of the present communication systems with regard to the coverage of the Haj j.

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ii There are nine major findings in this study: 1- Much has been written on the history of the two Holy cities of Mecca and al-Madina and Arabia’s Hajj before and under the Islam, but little attention has been paid to the communication aspects of information and instruction available to the pilgrims. 2- The Saudi Arabian media strives to cater for all the pilgrims during their Haij. 3- The Pilgrims, however need more and better targeted information before, as well as after, their arrival in Saudi Arabia. 4- Most of the pilgrims have no radio or television sets in their buildings and so they are not directly exposed to Saudi Arabian Information. 5- The Saudi Arabian Hajj newspapers provide special information supplements, but these are not as effective as had been hoped. 6- The Islamic media delegation which visit Saudi Arabia during the Hajj believes that the Saudi Arabian media does not serve the pilgrims from different cultures adequately as there is a lack of programme targeting and a shortage of information for non arabic speaking pilgrims. 7- The Saudi Arabian television channels are unable, as yet, to provide services in the main pilgrims’ languages, but new technologies should be able to redress this. 8- The Saudi Arabian Radio and TV stations need better scheduling. 9- No systematic study has yet been carried out about the pilgrims’ attitudes, their daily movements, access and reaction to the Saudi Arabian Media during the Hail: such a study should form the basis of future media and information policies.

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Ill Table of Contents Abstract Table of Contents List of Figures List of Tables Abbreviations Used Glossary of Arabic Terms The names of the Arabic months Transliteration Table Acknowledgements Chapter One: Introduction 1.1. Statement of the Problem 1.2. The Issues Addressed by the Study 1.3. Sources of Information Page i iii ix X xi Xll xiv xv xvi 1 2 3 5 1.3.1. The Qur’an and the Islamic Hadit Tradition 5 1.3.2. The Early Arabic and Muslims Commentators, 6 Historians, Geographers and Travellers 1.3.3. Contemporary Sources: The Hajj Research Centre 12 1.3.4. Saudi Arabian Media Research 13 1.4. Saudi Arabian Government Printed Books and Newspapers 13 Chapter Two: The Hajj -A Historical Background 15 Introduction 2.1. Pilgrimages Among The Semites 16 2.1.1. Jewish Pilgrimages 17 2.1.2. Christian Pilgrimages 18 2.1.3. Others (Hindu and Buddhist Pilgrimages) 18 2.2. The Arabic Pilgrimage 19 2.2.1. The City of Mecca and the Kacba 19 2.2.2. The Arabic Hajj Traditions Before Islam 22 2.3. The Hajj Under Islam 29 2.3.1. The Hajj Rites and Traditions Under Islam 31 2.3.2. The Visit to al-Madina al-Munawwara 35 2.4. The Pilgrims’ Routes to Mecca 36 2.5. The Hajj and Communications 37 2.5.1. Arabian Markets 38 2.5.2. Hajjat al-Widäa° 41

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iv Chapter Three: Saudi. Arabian Attitudes and Policies Concerning 42 the Holy Places Introduction 3.1. The Third Period (1902- the Present) 43 3.1.1. King °Abd al-cAziz ibn “Abd al-Rah-man 44 3.2. In the Service of the Pilgrims 48 3.2.1. The Expansion of al-Haram Mosque 48 3.2.2. The Expansion of the Prophet’s Mosque 49 3.3. King Saud cAbd al-cAziz 50 3.3.1. The Expansion of the al-Haram Mosque 50 The First stage, 1377-1378H (1957-1958) 51 The Second stage, 1379-1380H (1959-1960) 51 The Third stage, 1382H (1982) 52 3.3.2. The Expansion of the Prophet’s Mosque 54 3.4. King Faisal ibn CAbd al-cAziz 54 3.4.1. The Expansion of al-Haram Mosque 55 3.4.2. The Expansion of the Prophet’s Mosque 55 3.5. King Kälid cAbd al-cAziz 55 3.5.1. The Expansion of al-Haram Mosque 56 3.5.2. The Door of the Ka°ba 56 3.6. The Custodian of The Two Holy Mosques- King Fahd 56 3.6.1. The Expansion of al-Haram Mosque 57 3.6.2. The Expansion of the Prophet’s Mosque 60 3.6.4. Mina Events 61 Conclusion Chapter Four: Present Hajj Policy and Procedures Introduction 4.1. The Higher Hajj Council 4.2. Ministries in Charge of the Hajj Services 4.2.1. The Ministry of the Interior 4.2.2. The Ministry of the Hajj and Endowment The Ministry of the Hajj The Ministry of Endowment 4.2.3. The Ministry of Defence and Aviation 4.2.4. The Ministry of Post, Telephones And Telegraphs (MPTT) 4.2.5. The Ministry of Health (Hospitals and Medical care in the Holy Places) 4.2.6. The Ministry of Commerce 63 64 65 67 69 69 73 75 76 77 80

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vi 5.2.5. The English and French Language Radio 111 (from -Jeddah and Riyadh) 5.2.6. The Hajj Radio 112 5.2.7. The Saudi Arabian World Service Radio 112 5.3. Saudi Arabian Media Services During the Hajj: 1992-3 113 5.3.1. Newspapers 113 5.3.2. Printed Materials (Leaflets, Books, and Booklets) 120 5.3.3. Radio Programmes During the 1993 Hajj 123 Religious Programmes 124 Information Programmes 125 General Information Relating to the Hajj 126 Specialised Information Programmes 127 Instructional Programmes 128 Contact Programmes 128 5.3.4. Television 129 Religious Hajj Programmes 131 General Information programmes 133 Specialised Information Programmes 134 Instructional Programmes 134 Contact Programmes 135 5.3.5. Audio and Audio-visual Material 136 5.3.6. The Mosques: Verbal Information for the Pilgrims 137 5.3.7. Public Announcement boards in The Streets 138 Conclusion 137 Chapter Six: Problems Facing the Media Services the Pilgrims 141 Introduction 6.1. The Interview Programme 144 6.2. Interviewees 145 6.3. The Pilgrims’ Problems 145 6.3.1. Problems Encountered by the Saudi Arabian 145 Services During the Hajj The Availability of Information Prior to the Hajj 146 Printed Material and Newspaper Supplements 148 Language Barriers 149 Proposed Solutions 149 6.4. General Analysis of the Present Position 149 6.4.1. The Press 150 6.4.2. Radio and Television 154 The Hajj Radio Programmes 156

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vii Nidä’ al-Isläm Radio Programmes 157 English and French Radio Programmes 157 Riyadh Radio. the Second Programme Radio 158 and the Holy Qur’an Radio The Saudi Arabian World Service Radio’s Programmes 158 Conclusion 159 6.5. Television Programmes 159 6.5.1. Channel 1 Television Viewing Schedule 159 6.5.2. Channel 2 Television Viewing Schedule 161 6.5.3. The Instructional Messages on Television 163 6.5.4. The Handling of the Religious instruction Programmes 163 by Saudi Arabian Television 6.5.5. Safety and Security instructions’ programmes 6.5.6. Commercial Announcements 6.5.7. Television News Programmes 6.6. Specialised Media 164 165 165 166 6.6.1. The Saudi Arabian Government’s Hajj instructions 166 6.6.2. Saudi Arabian Projects to Make Use of the Meat of 167 the Animals Sacrificed During the Hajj. 6.6.3. Booklets, Leaflets, Audio and Video Cassettes 168 6.6.4. Lack of Programmes for the Disadvantaged, the Children, 169 Young and Women Pilgrims. Chapter Seven: Proposed Solutions Introduction 7.1 The Press 7.2. Radio and Television 7.2.1. 7.2.2. 7.2.3. 7.2.4. 7.2.5. 7.2.6. 7.2.7. 7.2.8. 7.2.9. Language problems Radio Television Additional Terrestrial Channels Cable Channels Satellite Channels Closed Circuit Television Approach A Proposed Design for a P. C. C. T. V. Studio Design Simultaneous Translation Facilities for Live Programmes 7.3. The Role of the P. C. C. T. V. Studio 7.3.1. The Advantages of the P. C. C. T. V. 7.4. Simultaneous Radio and Television Broadcasting 7.4.1. Financial Policy Implication 173 173 173 174 174 176 176 180 181 182 182 183 183 184 187 187

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viii Chapter Eight: Conclusions References Appendices Appendix 1. 1.1. The Black Stone. 1.2. Zamzam Well. 1.3 The Holy Kacba Kiswa. 1.4 Pilgrims’ Certificates. Appendix 2. 2.1 Pilgrimage Organising Instructions 2.2. Documents 2.3. Samples of Printed Materials 2.4. Samples of Audio and Audio-visual Material 2.5. Samples of Commercial Advertisement 188 194 207 208 209 209 217 219 219 220 221 222 223

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ix List of Figures Figure Page I. I. A. photograph from Ibrahim Rifrät Pasa’s book, Mir’ät al-1_laramayn. 9 1.2. A. photograph from C. Snouck Hurgronje’s book, Mäkkah a Hundred Years Ago 11 2.1. Makkah Throughout History 18 a 2.2. The Kacba Throughout History 21 a 2.2.1. The Holy Kaaba Today 21 b 2.3. The Qurays Tribe 22 a 2.4. Places to put on al-1hräm (al-Migdt) 32 a 2.5. The Circumambulation Around the Ka°ba. 33 a 2.6. The Hajj Stages.. 34 a 2.7. The Holy Places. 34 b 2.8. The Prophet’s Holy Room 35 a 2.9. The Prophet’s Mosque 35 a 2.8. The Visit to al-Madina al-Munawwara. 36 a 2.9. The Pilgrims’ Routes. 37 a 3.1 The Holy Kacba’s Door 56 a 3.2. A Complete and Final Model of the Holy Mosque After the Implementation 62a of all the projects Ordered by the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques King Fahd 3.3. A Complete and final Model of the Prophet’s Mosque After the Implementation 62 a of all the projects ordered by the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques King Fahd 4.1. The Saudi Arabian Ministries and Organisations in Charge of the Hajj Services 66 5.1. The Various Activities of the Ministry of Information 104 5.1. An Analysis of Non-Arabic Newspapers’ Coverage of the Hajj Articles, 114 29 Du -al-Qacda 1413 H (20 May, 1993) 5.2. An Analysis of Non-Arabic Newspapers’ coverage of the Häjj articles, 115 4 Du al-Hijja 1413 H (25 May, 1993) 5.3. An Analysis of Arabic Newspapers coverage of the Hajj articles, 116 29 Du -al-Qacda 1413 H (20 May, 1993) 5.4. An Analysis of Arabic Newspapers’ coverage of the Hajj articles, 117 4 Du-al-Hijja 1413 H (25 May, 1993) 5.5. An Analysis of Arabic Newspapers’ coverage of the Hajj articles, 118 15th of Du al-Hija 1413 H (5 June, 1993) 5.6. An Analysis of Arabic and non-Arabic Newspapers’ 119 5.15. Statistical Analysis of Hau Television Programmes (1993) 135 6.1. Broadcasting Stations and Audience Types 143 6.2. The Instructional Messages on Television. Caption Cards. 163 a 6.4. The Safety and Security Instructions. Caption Cards 165 b 7.1. P. C. C. T. V. Studio 183 7.2. The Translation Production in the P. C. C. T. V. Studios 185

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