by MI Khan · Cited by 73 — Abstract: Halal certification system is vital for the customers who prefer to consume Halal products. Here the definition of Halal is taken through the views of
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Khan M I et al . ; Saudi J . B us. M anag. Stud. ; Vol – 1 , Iss – 1 ( Feb – Apr , 201 6 ): 32 – 42 Available Online: http://scholarsmepub.com/sjbms/ 32 Saudi Journal of Business and Management Studies ISSN 2415 – 6663 (Print) Scholars Middle East Publishers ISSN 2415 – 6671 (Online) Dubai , U nited A rab E mirates Website: http://scholarsmepub.com/ – A Brief Review Mohd Imran Khan 1 , Dr. Abid Haleem 2* 1 Research Scholar, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jamia Millia Islamia New Delhi, India 2 Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jamia Millia Islamia New Delhi, India *Corresponding Author : Dr. Abid Haleem Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract: Halal certification system is vital for the customers who prefer to consume Halal products. Here the definition of Halal is taken through the views of eminent Islamic scholars. Different interpretations of Halal items are being made, whereas many bodies ar e certifying these as Halal products. The source of Halal Certification (HC) of products / services seems important both for organisation, and for the consumers. In order to understand the practices adopted by multiple bodies which are certifying Halal, we have tried to identify various criteria and sub criteria on which Halal certification are being undertaken. The main contribution on certification of Halal food has been made by JAKIM. This has been further extended to other countries. India being a major exporter of Buffen, its different companies tries to follow the norms of the importer country. Thus we have observed the multiplicity of Halal Certifying Organisation (HCO) and this has also provided major threats than opportunities for HC. However, when we tried to make comparison among different Halal certification bodies in India, we observed that theses certifications are focused towards the slaughter of the animal and have somewhat similar outlook. We observed that these HCO do not have proper norms f or the processes and upcoming technology being adopted in the food industry. They need to develop better norms for Halal cold chain and dedicated logistics to maintain the Halalness of the food. The certification of the food ingredients & additives is majo r opportunity. The codification of processes is also necessary. Thus extensive research is required in this area . Keywords: Halal Certification (HC), Halal Certifying Organisation (HCO), Halal Integrity, Hygenic and Safeness of Food INTRODUCTION Consuming Halal products earned by Halal means is an important obligation of Muslims wherever they live. As per the Islamic tenets, it is the responsibility of every Muslim to follow norms and values as provided by the Holy Quran and Hadiths as best as they can in their daily life, even though it is challenging to assimilate Islamic norms to a non – Muslim majority surrounding  . A large num ber of muslims are living in the countries, where Islam is not practised as state religion, such as India, Australia, Egypt, Bangladesh, China, the European countries, the United States and Canada [2 – 3]. Thus, the Muslim population provides a considerable market segment in modern food market. However, the food industry has somewhat ignored the Muslim consumer segment  . But recently, the global Halal product industry is developing at a very fast pace. Especially Asian countries like Malaysia, Indonesia et c. have taken initiatives such as the development of Halal standards, traceability systems, and Halal science centers [5 – 7] . Currently, European food industry also invests in the development of Halal products. Some European retailers added fresh Halal meat to their assortments, and some European manufacturers export halal products to Muslim countries. Most of the Halal products are channeled through the Netherlands to serve Halal markets within Europe, the Middle East and Africa. Netherlands boasts of the f irst ever facility to store Halal items, which has in turn stimulated the development of a worldwide Halal supply chain . Due to widespread scare in world regarding food safety and security, such as the threat of diseases, there is strong evidence that non – Muslims also now prefer Halal foods for additional safety, hygiene and quality assurance features [9 – 10] . They believed that the production of Halal foods requires strict ingredients, therefore, reducing the probability of contamination. This implies t hat the demand of Halal products and services is now becoming more substantial. The industry of halal is not only about slaughtering animals in accordance with Islamic law anymore; it also includes Halal food, Halal lifestyle and even Halal services . H permitted and upon which no restriction exists and the doing of which is allowed by ALLAH, God Almighty .
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Khan M I et al . ; Saudi J . B us. M anag. Stud. ; Vol – 1 , Iss – 1 ( Feb – Apr , 201 6 ): 32 – 42 Available Online: http://scholarsmepub.com/sjbms/ 33 The potential returns and opportunity to capture untapped market has encouraged multinational corporations (MNC), predominantly from the corporations owned by non – Muslims, to engage and invest heavily in this segment of the market  . These corporations are investing millions of dollars to incorporate the values, standards and guidelines of Sharia (Islamic Laws) in their operations. Thus, it is unavoidable that the demand for Halal products and services, especially food products, will increase in the nea r future. The philosophy of this study is to obtain a richer and deep insight of the concept of Halal and its components. This study also tries to investigate misconception between Halal, hygienic and safety of foods. It examines the prospects of Halal cer tification agencies around the world and specifically in India. The word Halal ( ) comes originally from Arabic language meaning: allowable, acceptable, permitted, and/or permissible. The concept of Halal is not on ly related to food or food products (as most people will expect or think), but it goes beyond food to cover all the aspects of a Muslim person life (male or female). Within this regard the concept of Halal is built around the need for any Muslim to have p roducts that are allowable, acceptable, permitted, and permissible from a religious point of view. As such, the concept of Halal includes any Islamic Shari’ah – compliant product(s) which start with food and beverages and moves from it to cover banking and f inance, tourism, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, jobs, travel, technology and transport services, etc. For a product(s) to be Halal (compliant with Islamic Shari’ah) it must meet the requirements of Shari’ah as found in its sources. The two most important sour ces of Islamic Shari’ah are the Holy Quran and the Sunnah. Malaysian standards MS1500:2009 also define of Standards Malaysia, 2009 item 2.3).  I n another standard, MS2400:2010 (Part 1 item 2.19), Halal in Islam, which conveys basic meaning and defines the standard of acceptability in accordance to Sharia ds Malaysia 2010)  . Halal covers all aspects of life that need to be adhered to by its followers, including food consumption. Halal Foods The Islamic dietary law stated that all foods are permitted to be consumed or traded, under normal circumstances, except for foods that are categorially being quoted in the Holy book of the Quran and the Hadith (books that recorded the Prophet Muhammad forbidden or prohibited are referred to as haram foods. According to Talib, et al.  , the objective to adhere with the Halal guidelines, particularly from their daily food intake will ensure the following objectives: to safeguard the essence of the Islam, to shield the Islamic attitude, to sustain life, to s afeguard property and future generation and to maintain dignity and integrity. The following are the various verses from the Al – Quran, the Holy Book of Islam, which provide the basic guidelines of the permissible foods for the consumption of its followers : Prohibited to you are dead animals, blood, the flesh of swine, and that which has been dedicated to other than ALLAH, and [those animals] killed by strangling or by a violent blow or by a head – long fall or by the goring of horns, and those from which a wild animal has eaten, except what you [are able to] slaughter [before its death], and those which are sacrificed on stone altars, and [prohibited is] that you seek decision through divining arrows. That is grave disobedience. This day those who disbelieve have despaired of [defeating] your religion; so fear them not, but fear Me. This day I have perfected for you your religion and completed My favor upon you and have approved for you Islam as religion. But whoever is forced by severe hunger with no inclina tion to sin – then indeed, ALLAH is Forgiving and Merciful. . In the above mentioned verses of the Holy Quran, Muslims have been clearly informed on what kind of food they should consume and not consume. The reasons for prohibitions are even substanti ated with clarifications through Quranic exegeses by Ulamah . For example, the reasons for forbidden dead animals and carrion are unfit for human consumption due to their decaying process leads to the formation of chemicals which are harmful to humans. Bloo d that is drained from an animal contains harmful hormones, bacteria and toxins, which are harmful to metabolism of human and development of their bodies. Thus, based on the verses mentioned above, the foods which are haram for human consumption from the Islamic point of view are listed as follows [17 – 19] : Corps or inappropriately slaughtered Halal animals, Animals slaughtered in the name of anyone other than ALLAH Domesticated donkey, mules and elephants Swine or pork and it s by – products Alcohol and intoxicants All plants which are poisonous.
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Khan M I et al . ; Saudi J . B us. M anag. Stud. ; Vol – 1 , Iss – 1 ( Feb – Apr , 201 6 ): 32 – 42 Available Online: http://scholarsmepub.com/sjbms/ 34 Carnivorous animals with fangs such as lions, dogs, wolves or tigers Birds of prey such as eagles, falcons or owls Snakes Pests such as rats and scorpions Insects Blood and blood by – prod ucts Foods which are contaminated with the above products In modern food production, Halal food can be categorized as: meat and poultry; dairy products; fish and seafood; cereals and confectionery; nutritional food supplements; and the food ingredients ge latin and enzymes [17,18] . Out of all the above categories, meat and poultry are the most susceptible towards cross contamination with other non – Halal products, in which any form of contact between these two can make the Halal becomes non – Halal, or haram. Therefore, more efforts should be focused on this food category to ensure that the Halal integrity will not be breached and that it will remain Halal until it reaches its final customers. Meat is considered as the most strictly regulated food products in Islam religion  and the meat is the highest among Muslim consumers in Asia, the Middle East and European countries compared to other Halal products  . Apart from Australia, other countries such as Brazil, India, France, New Zealand and the United States are among the countries in the world who are the major producers and exporters of Halal meat. Muslim countries, however, are the net – importers of Halal meat. The precondition for me at to be Halal is it must comes from Halal species animals such as cattle, sheep goats etc. These animals must be bred in a natural way and must be alive at the time of slaughter. These animals must be slaughtered in accordance with the Sharia principles, which are: reciting a special prayer at the beginning of the slaughter, the slaughter is performed by a sane Muslim, usage of a sharp knife, clean and quick cuts of the major blood vessels (jugular veins), humane treatment of the animal (before, during and after slaughter), and full bleeding of blood after slaughtering  . Additionally, livestock which is injured, sick or dead before slaughtering cannot be accepted as Halal. There is often misunderstanding of the concept of Halal. It often believes that as long as the animal is slaughtered according to the Sharia principles, the meat will always be Halal and safe for Muslim consumption. However, the Halal concept implies that meat must be prevented with any contamination and should remain Halal until it rea ches the end point of consumption. This implies the importance of dedicated cold chain for maintaining the halalness of the products. Table 1, presents various interpretation of Halal Food by various authors. Table 1: Various Interpretation of Halal Food Author/s & Year Halal Food Interpretation Al – Qardahawi  Any food which is hygienic and healthy and in the accordance of the teaching of the Quran he Shafie or any one of the Hanafi, Maliki or Hanbali school of thought or fatwa (decree) approved by the relevant Islamic authority). Ceranic & Bozinovic  Food made according to Islamic law and should adhere with the following two conditions: does not contain any elements which are not allowed in the Islamic law, during production, storage and transportation never came into contact with prohibited/not allowed substances Dollah, Yusoff & Ibrahim  Encompasses the aspects of slaughtering, storage, display, preparation, cleanliness and sanitation and must not be adverse to health. All contents of particular food must be in accordance with Islamic dietary laws. Hanzaee & Ramezani  Truly from the farm to the table and requires nutritious items prepared from permissible ingredients in a clean and hygienic manner. Ambali & Bakar  Food that has not been prepared processed or manufactured using instruments or ingredients that were not free from anything impure according to Sharia law. Said et al.  Anything that human being can eat or drink and there is no religious evidence prohibiting it, and its constituents are free from any unlawful or impure elements. Cosmetics A complete definition of cosmetic product by Rosita  the substances that are prepared with an intention to place it in contact with various external parts of the human body or with teeth and mucous membranes o f the oral cavity, with a view exclusively or mainly to perfuming them, cleaning them, changing their appearance and/or correcting body odors and/or Whereas Halal cosmetics are those products that must not have any ingr edients which is prohibited in Islam, processed according to Shariah law and stored in such a way that it does not come in contact with non – Halal items.
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Khan M I et al . ; Saudi J . B us. M anag. Stud. ; Vol – 1 , Iss – 1 ( Feb – Apr , 201 6 ): 32 – 42 Available Online: http://scholarsmepub.com/sjbms/ 35 The concept of Halal cosmetics covers all aspects of the management. It is not only focusing on the as pect of production including sourcing of Halal ingredients but all elements must be accounted for, such as manufacturing procedure, storage packaging and logistics. In this regard Norafni  identified that according to the MS 2200:2008 Islamic Consumer Goods, animals, plants and microorganisms (all on land or water), alcohol and synthetic materials are the five main sources of Halal cosmetics and personal care products. Swidi  argued that increasi ng knowledge about animal and functional ingredients of non – food products such as cosmetics among the Muslims in the Middle East, US and Europe, cause the growing demand for Halal cosmetics and personal care products. It seems that Halal cosmetics industry is going to be center of attention from many cosmetic companies, as Swidi  confirmed it by some reasons, such as increasing number of the Muslim people in the world, looking for the natural and safe products by consumers, increasing demand for Halal co mponent products by more knowledgeable and educated consumers and finally growing of global market segment by increasing of women incomes, which all together create a great business opportunity for more investment in the cosmetics industry. In addition, a research by World Halal Forum Secretariat, showed the amount of USD 2.3 trillion (excluding banking) for global Halal products which in details have been USD 1.4 trillion, 506 billion and 230billion belong to the foods, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics sector s respectively  . The concept of Halal cosmetics, in other words, also covers all aspects of the management system and formulation and the quality of Halal cosmetic products should completely adhere with the Islamic law, in addition, the Halal cosmetics should be safe with high quality that can be improved to Toyyiban ( which implies highest quality in the concept of Halal ) which should be applied by any organization and/or manufacturer  . A market research by Kamaruzzaman  shows that these produc ts got considerable acceptance by other communities because of their safety, high quality, hygienic preparation procedures and integrity maintenance throughout the production stage. Halal Pharmaceuticals To a Muslim, the Halal certified pharmaceuticals assure that the product does not contain pork or ingredients derived from the pork or other ingredients which are prohibited according to Islamic Law (such as other non permitted animal products or derivativ es, or alcohol). In addition, it guarantees to the consumer that the product has been manufactured using equipment that is dedicated for Halal pharmaceuticals. It is further expected that if any animal products or their derivatives used have to be sourced from animals slaughtered in accordance to the Islamic law. Various products are coming up and needs HC, like pharmaceuticals, additives, flavours, enzymes, and food supplements etc. However very less literature is available on their HC and thus we are not describing them here. HALAL INTEGRITY Halal products are now being produced and originated from all parts of the world, the question of whether the products remain Halal or not at the point of consumption is a matter of concern. Therefore, it is a challen ging work for all the parties involved in manufacturing, transportation and storage of halal products to ensure that the integrity of the Halal product is not broken throughout the supply chain. Lodhi  , Khan  and Tieman  agree that ensuring Hal al integrity is the key factors in developing a well trusted Halal supply chain in the current complex and competitive environment. All of these authors also agree that to protect the Halal integrity, complete understanding of the whole Halal supply chain is required. Variations in the definitions of Halal and the unavailability of single, worldwide Halal standard have made the process of understanding of the Halal supply chain more complicated. Until then, all the parties involved must be able to use ever y possible action to protect the integrity of the Halal supply chain. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HALAL, HYGIENIC AND SAFENESS OF FOOD/ CONSUMABLES Consumption of Halal products must be viewed from a much wider scope and perspective. The concept of Halal totally encompasses all aspects of human life as it gives us a better and insightful meaning when it is viewed from the perspective of quality and total goodness of what we should eat, drinks and use daily. Thus, for the Muslims, consumables need not to be only o f good quality, safety and hygienic but also be Halal  . It shows that all consumables is Halal except those that are specifically mentioned in Quran as Haram. Islam only permits its followers the lawful, hygiene, safe and good foods, drinks and product s as stated in the Holy Quran and Shariah. Hence, the consumption of Halal is not only an obligatory in serving ALLAH but obedient to Halal shows that material and ingredient are not harmful to health since ALLAH permitted only what is good for human exist ence. Hygienic, safety and cleanliness are strongly emphasized in Islam via Halal . It includes every aspect of personal hygiene, dress, equipment and premise where Halal products is processes or prepared. In fact the basis of Halal itself is hygiene and health  . The objective is to ensure that the foods, drinks and products people take or use are absolutely clean and not harmful to human health. It therefore worth to note that in Islam the consumption of Halal and using of Halal products
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Khan M I et al . ; Saudi J . B us. M anag. Stud. ; Vol – 1 , Iss – 1 ( Feb – Apr , 201 6 ): 32 – 42 Available Online: http://scholarsmepub.com/sjbms/ 36 are obligatory in serving ALLAH (SWT). In this context, Muslims communities must be mindful of food or drink ingredients, handling process and packaging of consumable products. Processed foods and drinks as well as products are only Halal if the r aw materials and ingredients used are Halal and it is fully compatible to the Islamic guidelines  . As such Muslims must be aware about Halal aspect of what they are consuming. BROAD – BASING THE AWARENESS ABOUT HALAL. e concerned towards health which in turn helps in Halal food as it covers the whole concept of consuming clean and hygienic food to promote better health. Consumers today are more aware of the importance of health; this influences their behavior towards fo od consumption. They search for food that can keep them fit and improve their mental state as well as their quality of life. Halal food constitutes an important aspect of the Islam. The role of cultural practices and religious beliefs in food is complex bu t has a unified understanding among Muslim followers. For instance, the Halal logo or label communicates and convinces Muslim consumers that the food product is produced and prepared according to the Islamic requirement. On the other hand, the non – Muslim c onsumers understand that food items carrying the logo are prepared in the most hygienic way and clean to be consumed. Furthermore, it has also been proven that non – Muslim consumers do respond positively to Halal products . Halal principles are not iso lated to the religious only but appeal as healthy and hygienic cuisine style as people become more health – conscious. According to the Hassan and Awang  there are strong demands for Halal product in non – Muslim countries. They chose to eat Halal food due to the perception that it is a healthy choice. HALAL CERTIFICATION SYSTEM Halal certification is the process of certifying products or services as pronounced by the shariah law. In providing the assurance to Muslim consumers on the Halal quality, a system of the Halal certification and verification is seen to be a key element. Halal certification system has a relatively short expanded to other countries and also to other products and s ervices since. Today there are more than 400 known HCOs (Halal Focus, 2014). As a result, there are many different Halal standards: local standards (either developed by a national standards development body or by the HCO itself), regional standards (e.g. t he Arab international Halal standards (IHI Alliance and SMIIC). The HCO provides auditing and certification services for which it charges either a fixed or a volume based fee. It is a product certification, ad dressing especially the ingredients and production process, which allows the producer to put a Halal logo of the HCO on the product packaging. This logo communicates to the Muslim consumer that the product is Halal certified according to the Halal standard of the respective HCO . Halal is an enforced religious requirement on products considered as a certification standard for quality. The Halal quality standard is applied to the product supply and manufacturin g encompassing processed food, cosmetics, pharmaceutical and medical products and has been extended to services involved in the logistics of Halal products. The Muslims population accounts for 25% of the world population (International Halal Integrity Alli ance 2010). These statistics project a huge demand of Halal products that will spur the growth of the Halal industry and in turn will naturally scale up the supply for Halal certificates. As Halal product certification is the prerequisite for entering the global Halal market, to the businesses who export their products, the Halal certificate can help them meet the Halal requirements from the importing countries which in turn can help the business expands its marketplace to increase its sales and revenue. To remain competitive the efficiency of Halal certification must be emphasized. From a strategic point of view, competitiveness in the Halal industry can be achieved by tackling the issues of operational efficiency. Supply chain management (SCM) is a strat egic approach that emphasizes competitive advantage through increased operational efficiency and market responsiveness from production and distribution processes into the hands of consumers. This research seeks to explore on how operational efficiency in t he Halal supply chain can be achieved. As the subject of Halal certification is rarely addressed in the literature issues of Halal certification efficiency is not discussed openly. A deeper understanding on the organizational issues that affect Halal certi fication system is seek especially on issues that are tied to religious requirements leading to issues of different governance structures, different enforcement jurisdiction and different interpretation of Islamic fatwa. Defining the Halal Supply Chain H alal supply chain comprise the process of administering Halal products from different points of suppliers to different points of end customers, which involved various parties, who are located at different places, who may at the same time, involved with man aging non – Halal products, with the purpose of satisfying the needs and requirements of both (Halal and non – Halal) customers. In Halal supply chain differ from conventional supply chain in the aspect that the main goal of the Halal supply chain is not only to ensure that satisfaction of the customer is achieved, but also to ensure that the Halal status of the product
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Khan M I et al . ; Saudi J . B us. M anag. Stud. ; Vol – 1 , Iss – 1 ( Feb – Apr , 201 6 ): 32 – 42 Available Online: http://scholarsmepub.com/sjbms/ 37 remains intact throughout the whole process of the supply chain  . It also considers the dedicated cold chain (including warehousing). Be nefits of Halal Certification Halal certification process provides benefits to consumers and a competitive advantage for food producers. For the consumer, the benefits of a reliable Halal certification are clear i.e., the end consumer does not have to both er checking all the ingredients and learning all about the production. It also allows the end consumers to confidently make an informed choice at the time of purchase. Halal certification of consumer goods ensure Muslim customers that the food served is Halal and is in accordance with Shariah Law, as in turns it assure customers that the food served is Halal and healthy and the premise’s hygiene and sanitation procedures are in top – notch. Now a days non – Muslim con sumers also demands Halal goods, Halal certificate will attract all Halal consumers whether they are Muslims or non – Muslims. Halal certification can be used as a product differentiation technique which in turn increases the company/restaurant’s revenue and enhance its marketability especially to Halal consumers. If planning to export, the Halal certificate will help to assure Halal consumers in importing countries. At international level, it can enhance the marketability of the products especially in Muslim countries as there is an increasing awareness on the part of Muslim consumers all over the world of their obligation to consume properly prepared Halal food. HALAL CERTIFICATION BODIES Halal certification give assurance to all Muslim consumers that the p roduct is in compliance with the Shariah laws, and for non – Muslims that the Halal products are quality products based on Halalan toyyiban (Halal and wholesome) concepts as it integrates the Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) and HACCP. International Halal Certification Bodies The Malaysian Halal Certification Bodies Malaysia is one of the countries whose Halal certification is issued by the Government, unlike in other countries whose certifications are endorsed by their respective Islamic associations. The Malaysian Halal certification and logo are issued by a federal body and several state bodies. At the federal level, the authority for certifying the Halal products and services is the Department of Islamic Development Malaysia ( Jabatan Kemajuan Islam Mala ysia JAKIM) which is under the Prime Minister Department. JAKIM handle the Halal certification process for products for the Halal logo is among the most widely recognized and respected symbols of Halal co mpliance in the world. At the state level, the certification authorities are the State Islamic Religious Department ( Jabatan Agama Islam Negeri – JAIN) and State Islamic Religious Council ( Majlis Agama Islam Negeri – MAIN) who are given the authority to issue the Halal certificate for domestic market. Malaysia has launched several standards (mentioned in Annexure I) to regulate the Halal products and services. Malaysia have been cited as best example in the world in terms of a justification for Halal food by the Codex Alimentarius Commission, which is responsible, under the United Nations, for regulations of food preparation globally. The Malaysian model has been regarded as the role model for the development of world Halal food industries  . Indonesian Halal Certification bodies. Indonesian Ulema Council ( Majelis Ulama Indonesia – MUI ) is Indonesia’s top Muslim clerical body . With the support of some Muslim scholars and academician MUI established the Assessment Institute for Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics (AIFDC) (Lembaga Pengkajian Pangan, Obat – obatan dan Kosmetika, LPPOM) on January 6, 1989 in Jakarta.LPPOM is an institution that assists MUI as an authoritative Halal certifying body in Indonesia. The LPPOM members are competent scientists with various disciplines including chemistry, biochemistry, food science & technology, veterinary, agro – industry and so on. In 1995, MUI issued decree on the permission of Provincial MUIs in Indonesia to establish a Provincial LPPO M. In following years, some Provincial LPPOM – MUIs were established including West Java, East Java, Central Java, Yogyakarta Special Region, West Sumatra, South Sulawesi, Bali, and so forth. Up to the present time, there are 28 Provincial LPPOMMUIs being es tablished. The Assessment Institute for Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics (AIFDC – ICU) (LPPOM MUI) is to become a trusted Halal certifier in Indonesia and also worldwide to give tranquility to Muslim ummah (society) and to become the world Halal center which exten d information, solution, and Halal standard admitted in national and international level. The mission are: 1) to make and develop Halal auditing system, 2) to perform Halal certification for products spread and consumed by Muslim society, 3) to educate and aware the society to consume Halal products, and 4) to give complete and accurate information about Halal status of products from all point of view. The Indonesian Council of Ulama (Majelis Ulama Indonesia, MUI) certifies the Halalness of a product in acc ordance to Islamic law and is issued based on the assessment and audit by LPPOM MUI. Halal certificate is a requirement for a license from the authorized government institution National Agency for Drugs and Foods Control (BPOM – RI) to attach a Halal label in each product package. To get Halal certificate, a company must set up and implement Halal Assurance System (HAS), that ensures the continuity of Halal production process during holding the certificate. In its 25 years age, LPPOM MUI has been increasing ly showing its existence as a credible Halal certifier body, both national and international.
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