Stunning is not a halal method of slaughtering! 7. A comparison of slaughtering methods. 7. Other methods of killing an animal. 8. The types of meat which are

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1 . This book has been produced with the sole intention of seeking the pleasure of Allah (swt). It is hoped that it will provide clarification to an issue which affects the Muslim community. ISLAMBASE PUBLICATIONS TEAM Email: islambase@hotmail.comWeb: There is no copyright in Islam, feel free to distribute this book widely Edition: 1 Print: 2005

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2THE ISSUE OF HALAL MEAT Contents Page Number Preface 1 Introduction 3 Islamic Ruling 4 Terminology 4 The Islamic practice is to slaughter the animal 4 What are the conditions for Halal Slaughtering? 5 Other points related to halal slaughtering 6 Stunning is not a halal method of slaughtering! 7 A comparison of slaughtering methods 7 Other methods of killing an animal 8 The types of meat which are Haram 9 The types of meat which are Halal 10 The Consequences of not eating Halal 11 Conclusion 11

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3 THE ISSUE OF HALAL MEAT INTRODUCTION The issue of halal meat is one of importance in Islam, however in recent times with the advent of modernisation Muslims have gone away from tradition methods of slaughtering. This has now caused much confusion, with differing opinions as to what is considered halal meat. When there is confusion on any Islamic matter, we should always refer back to Allah and His Messenger, as Allah (swt) says, (And) if you differ in anything amongst yourselves, refer it to Allah and His Messenger [Surah An Nisa™ 4:59] There are numerous verses (ayaat) and prophetic narrations (ahadith) commanding Muslims to eat that which is lawful (halal) and to leave that which is unlawful (haram). Allah (swt) says in the Qur’an O mankind! Eat of that which is lawful and good on the earth [Surah Al Baqarah 2:168] O you who believe! Eat of the lawful things that We have provided you with [Surah Al Baqarah 2:172] They ask you (O Muhammad SAW) what is lawful for them (as food). Say: “Lawful unto you are At-Tayyibaat (all kind of Halal foods) [Surah Al Maidah 5:4] The Messenger (saw) said: fiAllah is pure and only accepts that which is purefl [Sahih Muslim] #2393 fiThat which is lawful is clear and that which is unlawful is clearfl [Sahih Muslim] #4178 So it is common knowledge that Muslims only eat or drink that which is halal, to the point even the disbelievers (kuffar) have come to know that alcohol and pork is prohibited for a Muslim. As this is one of the topics known by necessity; Many food types are halal in their original state such as fruits, vegetables, and sea food, other food type such as meat from chicken, sheep or cattle are only lawful if killed or slaughtered in the right manner.

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4ISLAMIC RULING TERMINOLOGY Halal mean lawful in Arabic, and used to describe objects rather than an action. Normally when describing an action that is allowed we would say it is obligatory (fard/wajib), recommended (mandoub) or permissible (mubah). Haram means prohibited or unlawful, this term is both used for objects as well as actions. When describing an action that is not allowed we would say it is prohibited (haram) or disliked (makrouh) Dhabh () The meaning of the word ‚dhabh™ can be found in Bukhari Ata said fiDhabh means the cutting of the carotid and jugular blood veinfl when asked if it was allowed to cut the spinal cord Ata replied fiIbn Umar forbade An-Nakh (to cut the neck up to the spinal cord and to leave the animal to die)fl [Sahih Bukhari] This method is used for birds, cattle, sheep and goats, whereby the animal is laid down on its right side and the blood carrying veins are cut. Nahr () This method of is used for slaughtering camels and is done by cutting the carotid arteries at the root of the camels neck. The camel™s front legs are bent at the knee and thereafter tied. THE ISLAMIC PRACTICE IS TO SLAUGHTER THE ANIMAL The practice of slaughtering in Islam has always been to apply a sharp blade to the neck of the animal. Abu Yaala Shaddad bin Aws (ra) reported that the Messenger (saw) said: “Verily Allah has prescribed proficiency in all things. Thus, if you kill, kill well; and if you slaughter, slaughter well. Let each one of you sharpen his blade and let him spare suffering to the animal he slaughters.” [Sahih Muslim] #5167 And Allah (swt) says, Therefore turn in prayer to your Lord and sacrifice (to Him only) [Surah Al Kawthar 108:2] In the above verse Allah (swt) has twinned slaughtering with prayer, both are ritual acts. The ritual act in Islam has a set form which must be done in accordance with the example of the Messenger Muhammad (saw), who said fiTake (learn) your ritual acts from mefl [Musnad Ahmed] #14793

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5WHAT ARE THE CONDITIONS FOR HALAL SLAUGHTERING? There are six main conditions for Halal Slaughtering (dhabh), as follows: 1. The one that slaughters must be a Muslim 2. The one that slaughters must pray The evidence for the above points can be found in the sayings of Allah (swt) Therefore turn in prayer to your Lord and sacrifice. [Surah Al Kawthar 108:2] Ibn Kathir in the tafsir of the above verse quoted the following hadith. It was reported by Abdullah ibn Umar (ra) The Messenger (saw) said, fiThe slaughtered meat of the one (slaughterer) who leaves the Salah for three nights is dead meat.fl 3. The tool used to slaughter must be sharp The object used to slaughter the animal should be sharp and used swiftly. The Messenger (saw) said fiand if you slaughter, slaughter well. Let each one of you sharpen his bladefl The swift cutting of vessels of the neck disconnects the flow of blood to the nerves in the brain responsible for pain. Thus the animal does not feel pain. The movements and withering that happen to the animal after the cut is made are not due to pain, but due to the contraction and relaxation of the muscles deficient in blood. The blood must be drained completely before the head is removed. This purifies the meat by removing most of the blood 4. The slaughtering must be merciful As well as ensuring the slaughtering is done swiftly, one must ensure the animal is not distressed before being slaughtered. To avoid undue distress to the animal, the animal waiting to be slaughtered should not be in view of others being slaughtered. Nor should the knife used for slaughtering be sharpened in view of the animal waiting to be slaughtered. The Messenger (saw) said fiand let him spare suffering to the animal he slaughters”fl 5. The person slaughtering must mentioned the name of Allah (swt) ‚Tasmiyyah™ this is the verbal pronouncement of the name of Allah, when making dhabh or commencing any good deed. The slaughterer should face the qiblah, and he must utter the words, ‚Bismillah Allahu Akbar™ as he slaughters. These words are an important confirmation that the animal is being killed in the name of Allah, but the words are not just for us; the animal has the right to know that it has been slaughtered in the name of Allah. Allah (swt) says, And for every nation We have appointed religious ceremonies, that they may mention the Name of Allah over the beast of cattle that He has given them for food. [Surah Al Hajj 22:34] 6. Must ensure the blood is spilt from the animal And (remember) when Musa (Moses) said to his people: “Verily, Allah commands you that you slaughter (tadhabu) a cow.” [Surah Al Baqarah 2:67]

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7STUNNING IS NOT A HALAL METHOD OF SLAUGHTER! In the west it has become common practice for the slaughtering houses to stun the animal first before slaughtering with a knife. There are many types of stunning techniques used today such as, The captive bolt pistol (used for cows/cattle) Electric stunning (used for sheep) Electrified water bath (used for poultry) Carbon dioxide (co2) gas (used for pigs) The basic assumption being that by stunning the animal prior to cutting the throat it is less painful. This has been disproved by recent scientific finding, yet the practice continues. Stunning is not allowed as an Islamic method of slaughtering as it causes harm the animal as well restricts spilling of the blood from the animal once the blade is applied to it blood vessels. The Islamic method of slaughtering does not touch the nervous system at all; rather it allows the brain to function and thereby keeps the heart working expelling as much blood as possible. A COMPARISON OF SLAUGHTERING METHODS Experimental studies in Europe have deduced the following. Islamic Method of slaughtering 1. The first three seconds from the time of dhabh as recorded on the EEG did not show any change from the graph before slaughter, 2. Thus indicating that the animal did not feel any pain during or immediately after the incision 3. For the following 3 seconds, the EEG recorded a condition of deep sleep – unconsciousness. This is due to the large quantity of blood gushing out from the body. 4. After the above-mentioned 6 seconds, the EEG recorded zero level, showing no feeling of pain at all. 5. As the brain message (EEG) dropped to zero level, the heart was still pounding and the body convulsing vigorously (a reflex action of the spinal cord) driving a maximum amount of blood from the body thus resulting I in hygienic meat-for the consumer. Non-Islamic Method of slaughtering (i.e. Bolt) 1. The animals were apparently unconscious soon after stunning. 2. EEG showed severe pain immediately after stunning. 3. The hearts of animals stunned by C.B.P. stopped beating earlier as compared to the Islamic Method 4. Resulting in the retention of more blood in the meat. This in turn is unhygienic for the consumer. Study conclusion: The Islamic slaughtering is the most humane method of slaughter and that captive bolt stunning, practiced in the West, causes severe pain to the animal.

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8OTHER METHODS OF KILLING AN ANIMAL Killing by chocking, beating, falling or gorging Ibn Abbas (ra) whilst giving tafsir of the verses related to lawful meat said fithe animal killed by choking, beating or falling is not lawful. The animal gorged by another™s horn is lawful as long as you slaughter it whilst it is alive (i.e. its eyes and tail is moving)fl. [Sahih Bukhari] Slaughtering using a tooth or nail The Messenger (saw) said: fido not slaughter with a tooth or a nail–a tooth is a bone and the nail is the knife of the Ethiopiansfl [Sahih Bukhari] #5503 Ethiopia (Abyssinia) was the land of the Christians at the time of the Messenger (saw). Shooting tied and confined animals Anas (ra) said, fiThe Messenger (saw) has forbidden the shooting of tied and confined animalsfl [Sahih Bukhari] Game killed by Mi™raad This is when game is killed by a tool which is a sharp wood with a blunt shaft. The Messenger (saw) said fiIt is lawful to eat as long as it was killed by the sharp edgefl [Sahih Bukhari] #5476 Game killed by Bunduqa This is when game is killed by a shooting a ball through a hollow tube. Ibn Umar (ra) said fiit is unlawful as it is like killing an animal with a blunt instrumentfl [Sahih Bukhari] Game killed by Arrow The Messenger (saw) said fiif you hunt a game with your bow after mentioning Allah (swt) name, eat of itfl [Sahih Bukhari] #5478 Game killed by a Hound The Messenger (saw) said fiIf you let loose your trained hound after a game and you mentioned the name of Allah (swt) then you can eat what the hound catches for you, even if it kills the game. But you should not eat if the hound has eaten from it, as it has caught the game for itselffl [Sahih Bukhari] #5476 And on the issue of keeping a dog as a pet the Messenger (saw) said fiwhoever keeps a do which is neither a watch dog nor a hunting dog, will get a daily reduction of two qeeraat from his good deedfl [Sahih Bukhari] # 5480

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9THE TYPES OF MEAT WHICH ARE HARAM Animals that die naturally (Al-Maytah ) The blood of the animal (Ad Dam ) The flesh of swine (Al-Khinzeer) Meat slaughtered in other than Allah (swt) name (Dhabh lighairallah ) Animal killed by strangling (Al-Munkhaniqa) Animal killed by a blow (Al-Mauqoudhah) That which died by falling from a height Al-Mutaraddiya() Animal gored (An-Nateeha) or partially eaten Œ unless you can slaughter it whilst it is still alive Animals killed on a stone altar (An-Nusub) That you raffle by arrows (Al-Azlaam ) The evidence for the above points can be found in the following verse Forbidden to you (for food) are: Al-Maytatah (the dead animals – cattle-beast not slaughtered), blood, the flesh of swine, and the meat of that which has been slaughtered as a sacrifice for others than Allah, or has been slaughtered for idols, etc., or on which Allah™s Name has not been mentioned while slaughtering, and that which has been killed by strangling, or by a violent blow, or by a headlong fall, or by the goring of horns – and that which has been (partly) eaten by a wild animal – unless you are able to slaughter it (before its death) and that which is sacrificed (slaughtered) on An-Nusub (stone altars). (Forbidden) also is to use arrows seeking luck or decision, (all) that is Fisqun (disobedience and sin). [Surah Al Maidah 5:4] Donkey Meat – – – – Ibn Umar (ra) said Allah (swt) Prophet (saw) made the meat of donkeys unlawful on the day of the battle of Khaibar [Sahih Bukhari] #5521 Beast of Prey with Fangs – – Narrated by Az-Zhuri: The Prophet (saw) forbade the eating of the meat of beasts of prey having fangs [Sahih Bukhari] #5527 Birds with Talons Ibn Abbas said on the Day of Khaibar the Messenger (saw) prohibited eating every beast of prey, and every bird with a talon. [Sunan Abu Dawud] Carrion Carrion is the carcass of a dead animal that becomes food for other scavenging animals. This is haram (forbidden) to eat. Bones The reason for this forbiddance has been mentioned in Sahih Muslim from the hadith of Ibn Masoud in that the bones are the food of the Jinn. (By the time the bone reaches them), Allah (swt) will cover it for them with more meat than it had before. And as for the dung (feces), then it is the food of their riding animals.

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10THE TYPES OF MEAT WHICH ARE HALAL The Meat of Chicken – – – – – Narrated by Abu Musa al Ashari (ra): I saw the Prophet (saw) eating chicken [Sahih Bukhari] #5517 The Meat of Rabbit – – – – Narrated by Anas bin Malik (ra): We provoked a rabbit at Mar Zhahran, it started jumping. My companions chased it till they got tired. But I alone ran after it and caught it and brought it to Abu Talha. He sent both its legs to the Prophet (saw) who accepted them. [Sahih Bukhari] #5489 The Meat of Horse – – Narrated by Asma bint Abu Bakr(ra):We slaughtered a horse (by dhabh) during the lifetime of the Prophet (saw) while we were at Madinah, and we ate it [Sahih Bukhari] #5511 The Meat of Fish Allah (swt) says, And He it is Who has subjected the sea (to you), that you eat thereof fresh tender meat (i.e. fish) [Surah An Nahl 16:14] It should be noted that the above lists of haram and halal meat types are not an extensive list, but a brief introduction to the categories.

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