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1 Introduction to the Dewey Decimal Classification About the Introduction 1.1 This Introduction explains the basic principles and structure of the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) system. 1.2 The Introduction is intended to be used in conjunction with the Glossary and the Manual. The Glossary defines terms used in the Introduction and elsewhere in the Classification . The Manual offers advice on classifying in difficult areas and explains how to choose between related numbers. Classification: What It Is and What It Does 2.1 Classification provides a system for organizing knowledge. Classification may be used to organize knowledge represented in any form, e.g., books, documents, electronic resources. 2.2 Notation is the system of symbols used to represent the classes in a classification system. In the Dewey Decimal Classification, the notation is expressed in Arabic numerals. The notation gives both the unique meaning of the class and its relation to other classes. The notation provides a universal language to identify the class and related classes, regardless of the fact that different words or languages may be used to describe the class . History, Current Use, and Development of the Dewey Decimal Classification 3.1 The Dewey Decimal Classification Šconceived by Melvil Dewey in 1873 and first published in 1876 Šis a general knowledge organization tool that is continuously revised to keep pace with knowledge. The system is further extended through number building, interopera ble translations, association with categorized content, and mappings to other subject schemes. 3.2 The DDC is published by OCLC , Inc . The DDC is accessed through WebDewey, a frequently updated subscription service maintained by OCLC. OCLC owns all co pyright rights in the Dewey Decimal Classification and licenses the system for a variety of uses. 3.3 The DDC is the most widely used classification system in the world. Libraries in more than 138 countries use the DDC to organize and provide access to t heir collections, and DDC numbers are featured in the national bibliographies of more than sixty countries . Libraries of every type apply Dewey numbers on a daily basis and share these numbers through a variety of means (including WorldCat). Dewey is also used in a variety of applications on the web in support of categorization, browsing, and retrieval.

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2 3.4 The DDC has been translated into over thirty languages. Since 1988, authorized translations of the full and abridged editions of the DDC have been published or are under way in Arabic, French, German, Greek, Hebrew, Icelandic, Indonesian, Italian, Norwegian, Russian, Spanish, Swedish, Turkish, and Vietnamese. The DDC Summaries, the top three levels of t he Dewey Decimal Classification system, have been translated into Afrikaans, Arabic, Chinese, Czech, French, German, Hebrew, Italian, Norwegian, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish, Swedish, and Vietnamese. 3.5 One of Dewey ™s great strengths is that the system is developed and maintained in a national bibliographic agency, the Library of Congress. The Dewey editorial office is located in the Dewey Section of the Library of Congress, where classification specialists annually assign over 60,000 DDC numbers to reco rds for works cataloged by the Library. Having the editorial office within the Dewey Section enables the editors to detect trends in the literature that must be incorporated into the Classification. The editors prepare proposed schedule revisions and expan sions and forward the proposals to the Decimal Classification Editorial Policy Committee (EPC) for review and recommended action. 3.6 EPC is a ten -member international board whose main function is to advise the editors and OCLC on matters relating to changes, innovations, and the general development of the Classification. EPC represents the interests of DDC users; its members come from national, public, special, and academic libraries, and from library schools. Overview of the Dewey Decimal Classifica tion CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK 4.1 The DDC is built on sound principles that make it ideal as a general knowledge organization tool: meaningful notation in universally recognized Arabic numerals, well -defined categories, well -developed hierarchies, and a rich network of relationships among topics. In the DDC, basic classes are organized by disciplines or fields of study . At the broadest level, the DDC is divided into ten main classes , which together cover the entire world of knowledge. E ach main class is further divided into ten divisions , and each division into ten sections (not all the numbers for the divisions and sections have been used) . 4.2 The main structure of the DDC is presented in the DDC Summaries . The first summary contains the ten main classes. The second summary contains the hundred divisions. The third summary contains the thousand sections. The headings associated with the numbers in the summaries have been edited for browsing purposes, and do not necessarily match the c omplete headings found in the schedules.

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3 4.3 The ten main classes are: 000 Computer science, information & general works 100 Philosophy & psychology 200 Religion 300 Social sciences 400 Language 500 Science 600 Technology 700 Arts & recreation 800 Literature 900 History & geography 4.4 Class 000 is the most general class and is used for works not limited to any one specific discipline, e.g., encyclopedias, newspapers, general periodicals. This class is also used for certain specialized disciplines that deal with knowledge and information, e.g., computer science, library and information science, journalism. Each of the other main classes (100 -900) comprises a major discipline or group of related discipl ines . 4.5 Class 100 covers philosophy, parapsychology and occultism, and psychology . 4.6 Class 200 is devoted to religion. 4.7 Class 300 covers the social sciences. Class 300 includes sociology, anthropology, statistics, political science, economics, law, public administration, social problems and services, education, commerce, communications, transportation, and customs. 4.8 Class 400 comprises language, linguistics, and specific languages. Literature, which is arranged by language, is found in 800. 4.9 Class 500 is devoted to the natural sciences and mathematics. 4.10 Class 600 is technology. 4.11 Class 700 covers the arts: art in general, fine and decorative arts, music, and the performing arts. Recreation, including sports and games, is als o classed in 700. 4.12 Class 800 covers literature, and includes rhetoric, prose, poetry, drama, etc. Folk literature is classed with customs in 300. 4.13 Class 900 is devoted primarily to history and geography. A history of a specific subject is classed with the subject.

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4 4.14 Since the parts of the DDC are arranged by discipline, not subject, a subject may appear in more than one class. For example, ficlothing fl has aspects that fall under several disciplines. The psychological influence of clothing belon gs in 155.95 as part of the discipline of psychology; customs associated with clothing belong in 391 as part of the discipline of customs; and clothing in the sense of fashion design belongs in 746.92 as part of the discipline of the arts . NOTATION 4.15 Arabic numerals are used to represent each class in the DDC. The first digit in each three -digit number represents the main class. For example, 500 represents science. The second digit in each three -digit number indicates the division. For example, 5 00 is used for general works on the sciences, 5 10 for mathematics, 5 20 for astronomy, 5 30 for physics. The third digit in each three -digit number indicates the section. Thus, 53 0 is used for general works on physics, 53 1 for classical mechanics, 53 2 for flu id mechanics, 53 3 for gas mechanics. The DDC uses the convention that no number should have fewer than three digits; zeros are used to fill out numbers. 4.16 A decimal point , or dot, follows the third digit in a class number, after which division by ten continues to the specific degree of classification needed. The dot is not a decimal point in the mathematical sense, but a psychological pause to break the monotony of numerical digits and to ease the transcription and copying of the class number. A number should never end in a 0 anywhere to the right of the decimal point. PRINCIPLE OF HIERARCHY 4.17 Hierarchy in the DDC is expressed through structure and notation. 4.18 Structural hierarchy means that all topics (aside from the ten main classes) are part of all the broader topics above them. The corollary is also true: whatever is true of the whole is true of the parts. This important concept is called hierarchical force . Certain notes regarding the nature of a class hold true for all the subordinate classes, including logically subordinate topics classed at coordinate numbers. (For a discussion of notes with hierarchical force, see paragraphs 7.10 -7.17 and 7. 20-7.22.) Because of the principle of hierarchical force, hierarchical notes are usually given only once Šat the highest level of application. For example, the scope note at 700 applies to 730, to 736, and to 736.4. The words fiDescription, critical appraisal . . . fl found in the scope note at 700 also govern the critical appraisal of carving in 736 Carving and carvings, and of wood carving in 736.4 Wood. In order to understand the structural hierarchy, the classifier must investigate the schedules and tables up and down the hierarchy.

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5 4.19 Notational hierarchy is expressed by length of notation. Numbers at any given level are usually subordinate to a class whose notation is one digit shorter; coordinate with a class whose notation has the same number of significant dig its; and superordinate to a class with numbers one or more digits longer. The underlined digits in the following example demonstrate this notational hierarchy: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) 630 Agriculture and related technologies 636 Animal husbandry 636.7 Dogs 636.8 Cats fiDogs fl and fiCats fl are more specific than (i.e., are subordinate to) fiAnimal husbandry fl; they are equally specific as (i.e., are coordinate with) each other; and fiAnimal husbandry fl is less specific than (i.e., is superordinate to) fiDogs fl and fiCats. fl 4.20 Sometimes, other devices must be used to express hierarchy when it is not possible or desirable to do so through the notation. A see reference leads the classifier to subdivisions of a subject located outside the notational hierarchy. A centered entry (so called because in printed editions its numbers, heading, and notes appear in the center of the page) constitutes a major departure from notational hierarchy. A centered entry is used to indicate and relate structurally a span of numbers that together form a single concept for which there is no specific hierarchical notation available. In pri nt, centered entries are always flagged typographically by the symbol > in the number column . Classifying with the DDC 5.1 Classifying a work with the DDC requires determining the subject, the disciplinary focus, and, if applicable, the approach or form. (For a discussion of approach or form, see paragraph 8.3.) DETERMINING THE SUBJECT OF A WORK 5.2 Classifying a work prope rly depends first upon determining the subject of the work in hand. A key element in determining the subject is the author ™s intent. (A) The title is often a clue to the subject, but should never be the sole source of analysis. For example, Opera could be the title of a work on the familiar dramatic musical art form or on the web browser Opera. Likewise, a title with specific terms that are subdivisions of a field may in fact use such terms symbolically to represent the broader topic. For example, titles containing terms like chromosomes, DNA, double helix, genes, and genomes may use these terms symbolically to represent the whole subject of biochemical genetics .

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6 (B) The table of contents may list the main topics discussed. Chapter headings may substitute for the absence of a table of contents. Chapter subheadings often prove useful . (C) The preface or introduction usually states the author ™s purpose. If a foreword is provided, it often indicates the subject of the work and suggests the place of the work in the development of thought on the subject. The book jacket or accompanying material may include a summary of the subject content. (D) A scan of the text itself may provide further guidance or confirm preliminary subject analysis. (E) Bibliographical references and index entries are sources of subject information. (F) Cataloging copy from centralized cataloging services is often helpful by providing subject headings, classification numbers, and notes. Such copy appears in online services, and on the verso of the title page of many books as part of Cataloging -in-Publication (CIP) data. Data from these sources should be verified with the book in hand, since the catalogin g record is based on prepublication information. (G) Occasionally, consultation of outside sources such as reviews, reference works, and subject experts may be required to determine the subject of the work. DETERMINING THE DISCIPLINE OF A WORK 5.3 After determining the subject, the classifier must then select the proper discipline, or field of study, of the work. 5.4 The guiding principle of the DDC is that a work is classed in the discipline for which it is intended, rather than the discipline fr om which the work derives. This enables works that are used together to be found together. For example, a general work by a zoologist on agricultural pest control should be classed in agriculture, not zoology, along with other works on agricultural pest co ntrol. 5.5 Once the subject has been determined, and information on the discipline has been found, the classifier will turn to the schedules. The summaries are a good means of mental navigation. The headings and notes in the schedules themselves and the Manual provide much guidance. The Relative Index may help by suggesting the disciplines in which a subject is normally treated. (For a discussion of the summaries, see paragraph 7.1; for a

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8 (For a discussion of the first -of-two rule versus preference order, see paragraph 9.6; for a discussion of comprehensive numbers, see paragraphs 7. 16 and 7.20-7.21.) (D) Class a work on three or more subjects that are all subdivisions of a broader subject in the first higher number that includes them all (unless one subject is treated more fully than the others). This is called the rule of three . For example, a history of Portugal (946.9), Sweden (948.5), and Greece (949.5) is classed with the history of Europe (940). (E) Subdivisions beginning with zero should be avoided if there is a choice between 0 and 1 -9 at the same point in the hierarchy of the notation. Similarly, subdivisions beginning with 00 should be avoided when there is a choice between 00 and 0. This is called the rule of zero . For example, a biography of an American Methodist missionary in China belongs in 266 Missions. The content of the work can be expressed in three different numbers: 266.0092 biography of a missionary 266.02373051 foreign missions of the United States in China 266.76092 biography of a United Methodist Church missionary The last number is used since it has no zero at the fourth position. MORE THAN ONE DISCIPLINE 5.8 Treating a subject from the point of view of more than one discipline is different from treating several subjects in one discipline. Use the following guidelines in determining the best placement for the work: (A) Use the interdisciplinary number provided in the schedules or Relative Index if one is given. An important consideration in using such an interdisciplinary number is that the work must contain significant material on the disci pline in which the interdisciplinary number is found. For example, 305.231 (a sociology number) is provided for interdisciplinary works on child development. However, if a work that is interdisciplinary with respect to child development gives little emphas is to social development and a great deal of emphasis to the psychological and physical development of the child (155.4 and 612.65, respectively), class it in 155.4 (the first number in the schedules of the next two obvious choices). In short, interdiscipl inary numbers are not absolute; they are to be used only when applicable. (For a discussion of interdisciplinary numbers, see paragraphs 7. 16, 7.20-7.21, and 11.8 -11.9.)

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9 (B) Class works not given an interdisciplinary number in the discipline given the fullest treatment in the work. For example, a work dealing with both the scientific and the engineering principles of electrodynamics is classed in 537.6 if the engineering aspects are introduced primarily for illustrative purposes, but in 621.31 if the ba sic scientific theories are only preliminary to the author ™s exposition of engineering principles and practices. (C) When classifying interdisciplinary works, do not overlook the possibilities of main class 000 Computer science, information & general wor ks, e.g., 080 for a collection of interviews of famous people from various disciplines. Any other situation is treated in the same fashion as those found in the instructions at More Than One Subject in the Same Discipline (paragraph 5.7). TABLE OF LAST RESORT 5.9 When several numbers have been found for the work in hand, and each seems as good as the next, the following table of last resort (in order of preference) may be used as a guideline in the absence of any other rule: Table of la st resort (1) Kinds of things (2) Parts of things (3) Materials from which things, kinds, or parts are made (4) Properties of things, kinds, parts, or materials (5) Processes within things, kinds, parts, or materials (6) Operations upon things, kinds, parts, or materials (7) Instrumentalities for performing such operations For example, surveillance by border patrols could be classed in either 363.285 Border patrols, or 363.232 Patrol and surveillance. Choose 363.285 since border patr ols are a kind of police service, while patrol and surveillance are processes performed by police services . 5.10 Do not apply this table or any other guideline if it appears to disregard the author ™s intention and emphasis. How DDC 2 3 Is Arranged 6.1 DDC 2 3 is composed of the following major parts: (A) Introduction: A description of the DDC and how to use it

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10 (B) Glossary : Short definitions of terms used in the DDC (C) Manual : A guide to the use of the DDC that is made up primarily of extended discussions of problem areas in the application of the DDC. Manual notes are indicated by a book icon adjacent to the schedule or table number (D) Tables: Six numbered tables of notation that can be added to class numbers to provide greater specificity (E) DDC Summaries : The top three levels of the DDC (F) Schedules: The organization of knowledge from 000 -999 (G) Relative Index: An alphabetical list of subjects with the disciplines in which they are treated subarranged alphabetically under each entry Key Feature s of the Schedules and Tables SUMMARIES 7.1 Summaries provide an overview of the structure of classes. Three types of summaries appear in the DDC: (A) DDC Summaries, the summaries of the top three levels of the DDC. (For a discussion of DDC Summaries, see paragraphs 4.2 -4.13.) (B) In print, t wo-level summaries are provided for each main class and division of the schedules and main numbers of Table 2 with subdivisions that extend beyond forty pages. See the summaries at the beginning of T 2Š4 Europe and 370 Education for examples of two -level summaries. (C) Single -level summaries in the print schedules and tables provide an overview of classes whose subdivisions cover between four and forty pages. For example, 382 Internat ional commerce (Foreign trade) has the following summary:

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11 SUMMARY 382.01-.09 Standard subdivisions .1 General topics of international commerce .3 Commercial policy .4 Specific products and services .5 Import trade .6 Export trade .7 Tariff policy .9 Trade agreements ENTRIES 7.2 Entries in the schedules and tables are composed of a DDC number in the number column, a heading describing the class that the number represents, and often one or more notes. In print, DDC numbers are listed in groups of three digits for ease of reading an d copying. All entries (numbers, headings, and notes) should be read in the context of the hierarchy. (For a discussion of the principle of hierarchy, see paragraphs 4.17 -4.20.) 7.3 In print, t he first three digits of schedule numbers (main classes, divis ions, sections) appear only once in the number column, when first used. They are repeated at the top of each page where their subdivisions continue. Subordinate numbers appear in the number column, beginning with a decimal point, with the initial three dig its understood . 7.4 Table numbers are never used alone. There are six numbered tables in DDC 23: T1 Standard Subdivisions T2 Geographic Areas, Historical Periods, Biography T3 Subdivisions for the Arts, for Individual Literatures, for Specific Literary Forms T3A Subdivisions for Works by or about Individual Authors T3B Subdivisions for Works by or about More than One Author T3C Additional Notation for Arts and L iterature T4 Subdivisions of Individual Languages and Language Families T5 Ethnic and National Groups T6 Languages

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