REQUIRED ELEMENTS | 50. 4. Figure 9: City of Los Angeles Circulation Map. Source: planning.lacity/mapgallery/Image/Citywide/GenCirculation.pdf

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DIRECTOR™S MESSAGE | iDirector™s Message fter a multi-year effort involving literally dozens of workshops, hundreds of meetings, and thousands of participants, I am very pleased to present the 2017 version of the General Plan Guidelines. This is the ˜irst comprehensive update since 2003, and, not surprisingly, there are many changes. In an effort to reduce time, cost, and burden, we have included hundreds of links to resources, now available by a single click. We have included an on-line mapping tool, free of charge, which allows access to state and federal and other GIS data resources. The mapping tool also allows users to download and add their own GIS layers. OPR will add additional functions to the tool in the future. We have identi˜ied changes in the law and added new sections on a number of topics including health and equity. A great deal has changed in California since 2003, and the General Plan Guidelines re˜lect that. Most importantly, climate change and its implications permeate almost every aspect of the Guidelines, as it must. One thing that has not changed is the importance of the general plan itself and the unique perspective each jurisdiction brings to the process and the plan vision. Going forward, OPR will be adding resources and links periodically, making the Guidelines more of a living document. We encourage you to help OPR identify the best resources and links as part of this effort. Most importantly, we hope that these Guidelines help improve the planning process and promote periodic general plan updates. A

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DIRECTOR™S MESSAGE | iiAcknowledgements Principal authors Sahar Shirazi, Elizabeth Baca, Michael McCormick, and Seth Litchney Thanks also to: AARP | Air Resources Board | Alliance of Regional Col -laboratives for Climate Adaptation (ARCCA) and member regions | American Lung Association | American Plan – ning Association | Association of Bay Area Governments | Association of Environmental Professionals | CalEPA California Air Pollution Control O˜cers Association | California Association of Councils of Government | Cali -fornia Coastal Commission | California Conference of Local Health O˜cers | California Department of Conservation | California Department of Education | California Department aof Finance | California Department of Food and Agricul -ture | California Department of Forestry and Fire Protec -tion | California Department of Housing and Community Development | California Department of Public Health | California Department of Resources Recycling and Re -covery | California Department of Technology | California Department of Toxic Substance Control | California Department of Water Resources | California Health and Human Services Agency | California Natural Re -sources Agency | California O˜ce of Emergency Services | California Pan Ethnic Health Network | California Planning Roundtable | California Walks | Caltrans | Caltrans Aeronau -tics | Central California Regional Obesity Prevention Program | Changelab Solutions | Climate Readiness Institute at UC Berkeley | ClimatePlan | Community Health Councils, Los Angeles | County Health Executives Associate of California | Design 4 Active Sacramento | Eco- Adapt | ED West Fresno Family Resource Center | Environmental Protection Agency | Federal Emergency Management Agency | Fresno Interdenomina -tional Refugee Ministries | Fresno Metro Ministries | Governors O˜ce of Business and Economic Development | Health in All Policies Taskforce | Institute for Local Government | Kaiser Innovation lab | League of California Cities | Local Government Commission | Local Health Departments | Massachuse˚s Institute of Technology | Met -ropolitan Transportation Commission | Mintier Harnish | Mosquito Abatement Districts | National Institute for Standards and Technology | Native American Heritage Commission | National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | O˜ce of Statewide Health Planning and Development | Paci˛c Gas and Electric | Place Works | Policy Link | Prevention Institute | Pub -lic Health Institute | Raimi & Associates | Resources Legacy Fund | Sacramento Tree Foundation | Safe Routes to School National Partnership | San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District | Si -erra Health Foundation | Strategic Growth Council | The California Endowment | The Leadership Council | The Nature Conservancy | UC Berkeley, Center for Technology and Aging | UC Da -vis | UC Los Angeles | United States Army Corp of Engineers | United States Department of Agriculture | United States Geological Service | US Department of the Interior | Walk Sacramento | White House Council on En -vironmental Quality | The Sta˝ and Interns at the O˜ce of Planning and Research | Participants who gave of their time to provide feedback at the many ses -sions throughout the state, and the many more who submi˚ed comments to OPR. Design: Marketing by Design, Sacramento

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TABLE OF CONTENTS | iiiDirector™s Message iAcknowledgements iiTable of Contents iiiCHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1Recommendations and Sample Language 4How to Use These Guidelines 6Statutory Requirements ..6Requirement Description 6Recommended Data 6Recommended Policies .7CHAPTER 2 A VISION FOR LONG-RANGE PLANNING 10Why the General Plan Ma˜ers 10Local General Plans and Statewide Goals 11California™s Planning Priorities ..12California™s Climate Change Policy and Local Communities ..13General Plan Basics 14General Plan Elements 15Criteria for the General Plan 19Comprehensiveness .19Table of Contents Geographic Comprehensiveness ..19Regional Context .19Issue Comprehensiveness ..21Internal Consistency 21Equal Status Among Elements .21Consistency Between Elements ..21Consistency Within Elements 22Area Plan Consistency 22Text and Diagram Consistency .22Long Œ Term Perspective ..22Considerations for General Plans .23Area Plans, Community Plans, and Specific Plans 23Adoption of Another Jurisdiction™s General Plan and Joint Adoption .24CHAPTER 3 COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT AND OUTREACH 26Introduction 26 Process Design 28Establish an Outreach Strategy .28Survey of Overlapping Efforts .30Scale .30Partnership 30Tribal Consultation .. 32

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TABLE OF CONTENTS | iv Cultural Considerations ..32Outreach Structure .33Data 33 On the Horizon .34Engagement Tools 35Meetings, Workshops, and Events ..35Activities 36Tours 36Open Houses .36Community Image Surveys and Photo Voice ..36Design Charrettes ..37Web Based Meeting and Engagement Tools .37Mailings Œ email and regular mail ..37Surveys 37Beyond outreach 38CHAPTER 4 REQUIRED ELEMENTS 39Quick Links to Individual Elements 39Introduction 39Relationships Among Elements and Issues ..39Mandatory Element Format .41LAND USE ELEMENT 42Introduction 42 Completeness Checklist .44Required Contents 45Density and Intensity ..46Statutory Requirements 49Diagram 49 Housing, Business, and Industry 53Open Space, Including Agricultural Land, Natural Resources, and Recreation . 54Educational Facilities .55Public Buildings and Grounds 58Solid and Liquid Disposal Facilities 58Greenways 61Identify and Annually Review Areas Subject to Flooding .. 62Identi˜cation of Timberland Production Zone Lands. 63 Impact of New Growth on Military Readiness Activities .64Identify Unincorporated Island or Fringe Communities (Cities) or Legacy Communities (Counties) ..65Correlation with Circulation Element .67OPR Recommended Policies 70CIRCULATION ELEMENT 71Introduction 71Completeness Checklist ..73Required Contents 73Statutory Requirements 73 Correlation with the Land Use Element 74Major Thoroughfares .77Transportation Routes ..77Roads .77Transit ..78Active Transportation: Bicycle and Pedestrian Networks ..79

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TABLE OF CONTENTS | vTerminal 80Military Airports and Ports .81Public Utilities and Facilities .81Other Considerations 83Transportation and Climate Change .83Parking .83Traffic Control Around Schools .85Addressing Tradeoffs and Maximizing Co-benefits in Circulation 85Goods Movement .86OPR Recommended Policies 88HOUSING ELEMENT 89Introduction 89Completeness Checklist ..90Required Contents 92Public Engagement .92Review and Revise .92General Plan Consistency ..93Coastal Zone Requirements .93Internal Consistency in Updates ..94Analysis of Existing Housing Needs ..94Analysis of Projected Housing Needs ..96Analysis of Special Housing Needs .96Sites Inventory and Analysis .97Identification of Zoning for Emergency Shelters .99Analysis of Governmental and Non-governmental Constraints .100Analysis of Energy Conservation Opportunities 100Analysis of Assisted Housing At-risk of Converting to Market Rate Uses 101Quantified Objectives 101Housing Programs ..101Other Considerations 104Displacement .104Climate Change 104Health 105Economic Development .106Education ..107 Infill .107 OPR Recommended Policies 108CONSERVATION ELEMENT 109Introduction 109Completeness Checklist .110Required Contents 111Water and Its Hydraulic Force ..112 Forests ..114Soils ..115 Rivers and Other Waters 116Harbors and Fisheries .117Wildlife ..117Minerals and Other Natural Resources .118Floodwater Management ..119Optional Issues ..119OPR Recommended Policies 120

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TABLE OF CONTENTS | vii Promote Civil Engagement in the Public Decision Making Process ..82Prioritize improvements and programs that address the needs of disadvantaged communities 182 Additional Data Sources for Equity and EJ 183OPR Recommended Policies 183AIR QUALITY 185Introduction 185San Joaquin Valley Completeness Checklist .186 Required Contents in San Joaquin Valley 186Statutory Requirements in San Joaquin Valley 188Considerations for Communities Beyond San Joaquin Valley 189Required Contents for Disadvantaged Communities 189OPR Recommended Policies 194CHAPTER 5 EQUITABLE & RESILIENT COMMUNITIES 195Introduction 195Social Equity and other planning issues 197 Common de˚nitions in reference to social equity 198Incorporating social equity into planning: examples and strategies 200Community Resilience 201OPR Recommended Policies 203CHAPTER 6 HEALTHY COMMUNITIES 204Introduction 204Strategies and Approaches 205Health Considerations .. 208 Health Data and Mapping . 212 OPR Recommended Policies 217CHAPTER 7 ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND THE GENERAL PLAN 218Introduction 218CHAPTER 8 CLIMATE CHANGE 222 Introduction 222 CHAPTER 9 IMPLEMENTATION 234Introduction 234Zoning 235 Zoning Tools 235Zoning-Related Statutes .237 Speci˚c Plans 239 Subdivision Regulations 240 Capital Facilities 242 Development Agreements 243Building and Housing Codes 244 Acquisition 245 Preferential Property Tax Assessments 246 Williamson Act ..247 Timberland Productivity Act .248

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TABLE OF CONTENTS | viii Conservation, Open-Space, and Scenic Easements ..248 Land Trusts . 249 Transportation System Management 250Infrastructure Funding Mechanisms 250Taxes ..251Benefit Assessments .251Bonds 252 Exactions 252 Privatization .253 Transportation Financing Methods 254Consistency in Implementation 254Zoning Consistency .. 255 Assessing and Achieving Zoning Consistency .256Subdivision Consistency 258Enforcement and Remedies 258 Annual Progress Reports 258 Purpose of the Report .259 Format of the Report (General) ..259 Format of the Report (Housing Element) 262 Contents of the Report ..262 Submitting the Report to OPR and HCD ..263 Coastal Act Compliance for those Jurisdictions Located in the Coastal Zone ..263 CHAPTER 10 CEQA 269 Introduction 269 Key CEQA Policies to Remember 269 Considerations for General Plan EIRs 270Baseline .270Level of Detail in Analysis .. 271 Mitigation 271 Alternatives .. 271 Cumulative Impacts 271 Growth Inducing Impacts 272 Irreversible Environmental Changes .272 Timing ..272 Public Review of the EIR and Consultation 272 Adoption and Certi˚cation 273 Program and Master EIRs 273 Streamlining in Public Resources Code Section 21083.3 276 Streamlining for Infill Projects in Public Resources Code Section 21094.5 . 276 Integrating Annual Reporting with Mitigation Monitoring and Implementation 277 APPENDIX A 278 LandŒUse Planning 283Design for Sustainability and Stability ..283 Provide for New Development .284 Create Economically Vibrant Communities .286 Improve Community Life .. 287 Circulation 289 Transportation Planning ..289

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TABLE OF CONTENTS | ixParking .291 Public Transit ..292 Biking and Walking 293 Preserving Neighborhood Character 296 Economics and Transportation ..296 Housing 297 Special Populations and Homelessness 297 Affordability . 297 Housing and Neighborhoods 298 Infill Housing ..299 Conservation 300Biological Resources .. 300Mineral Resources ..301Cultural Resources ..302 Water Resources 303Agricultural Resources .304Open Space 306Open Space for Habitat and Conservation 306Open Space for Recreational Uses . 306Visual Resources 307 Safety 309Avoiding and Mitigating Natural Disasters 309Emergency Preparedness and Prevention 310Environmental Justice 312Pollution Exposure .312 Food Access ..314Safe and Sanitary Homes .316Physical Activity .318Access to Public Amenities .321 Noise 322 Healthy Communities 324 Economics and Health ..324 A Changing Climate and Resiliency .325Social Connection and Safety 327 Health and Human Services .329 Air Quality 331Equitable and resilient communities 333 Community Engagement .333Economic Development 335 Climate Change 337 Code Changes, Zoning Changes, and/or Policy Energy .338Transportation and Land Use .. 339 Natural and Working Lands (NWL) ..340 Agriculture 341 Water .341 Waste Management ..341 ShortŒLived Climate Pollutants ..342 Green Buildings 342 Mitigation Construction ..343Operation ..343

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TABLE OF CONTENTS | xAPPENDIX B 346Addressing Transportation Safety 346Reducing Speed and Increasing Driver Attention.347 Protecting Vulnerable Road Users.351 Reducing overall VMT and Sprawl..351 Addressing Tradeoffs and Finding Win-Win Safety Improvements.. 354 Examples of Detriments to Safety.. 355 Examples of Problematic Approaches to Safety. 356 Examples of Potential Transportation Safety Mitigation Measures. 356 References 358 APPENDIX 360 APPENDIX 366 Guidelines for the Preparation and Content of the Noise Element of the General Plan 366Noise Element Requirements.368 Noise Element Development Process. 369 Relationship Of The Noise Element To Other General Plan Elements.376 Selection Of The Noise Metric377 Criteria For Noise-Compatible Land Use..377 Bibliography..379 APPENDIX E 380De˚ning the Parts of a General Plan 380Development Policy 380 Diagram.. 380 Goal..381 Objective. 381 Principle..381 Policy. 382 Standards.. 382 Plan Proposal. 383 Implementation Measure. 383 Linking Objectives to Implementation 383 Noise Related Definitions.. 384 Safety Related Definitions. 385 BIBLIOGRAPHY 389

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