by JM Regenstein · Cited by 435 — Knowledge of the kosher and halal dietary laws is important to the Jewish and Muslim populations who (dining.cornell/docs/multicultural_doc.pdf). Other.

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Vol. 2, 2003ŠCOMPREHENSIVE REVIEWS IN FOOD SCIENCE AND FOOD SAFETY111© 2003 Institute of Food Technologists The Kosher andHalal Food Laws J.M. Regenstein, M.M. Chaudry, and C.E. Regenstein IntroductionThe objective of this paper is to describe the kosher and halal laws as they apply in the food industry, particularly in the United States. To understand their impact in the marketplace, one must have some understanding of how kosher and halal foods are pro-duced, and how important kosher and halal compliance is toconsumers.Kosher and halal lawsWe will start by focusing on the religious significance of the di-etary laws for Jews and Muslims. The kosher (kashrus) dietary laws determine which foods are fifit or properfl for consumption byJewish consumers who observe these laws. The laws are Biblical in origin, coming mainly from the original five books of the HolyScriptures, the Torah, which has re- mained unchanged. At the sametime that Moses received the Ten Commandments on Mount Sinai,Jewish tradition teaches that healso received the oral law, which was eventually written down manyyears later in the Talmud. This oral law is as much a part of Biblicallaw as the written text. Over theyears, the meaning of Biblical ko- sher laws has been interpreted andextended by the rabbis to protectthe Jewish people from violatingany of the fundamental laws, andto address new issues and technol- ogies. The system of Jewish law is referred to as fihalacha.fl The halal dietary laws determine which foods are filawfulfl or permitted for Muslims. These laws are found in the Quran and in the Sunna, the practice of the Prophet Muhammad, as recorded in the books of Hadith, the Traditions. Islamic law is referred to as Shari™ah and has been interpreted by Muslim scholars over theyears. The basic principles of the Islamic laws remain definite and unaltered. However, their interpretation and application may change according to the time, place, and circumstances. Besidesthe 2 basic sources of Islamic law, Quran and the Sunna, 2 other sources of jurisprudence are used in determining the permissibili-ty of food, when a contemporary situationid not explicitly coveredby the first 2 basic sources. The first is Ijma, meaning a consensus of legal opinion. The second is Qiyas, meaning reasoning by anal- ogy. In the latter case, the process of Ijtihad, or exerting oneself fully to derive and answer to the problem, is used.Current issues of genetically modified organisms (GMO), animalfeed, hormones, and so on, are discussed in the light of these twoconcepts and several other lesser sources of Islamic jurispru-dence. Unconventional sources of ingredients, synthetic materi-als, and innovations in animal slaughter and meat processing aresome of the issues Muslim scholars are dealing with in helping consumers make informed choices.Why do Jews follow the kosher dietary laws? Many explana-tions have been given. The explanation by Rabbi I. Grunfeld, be- low, summarizes the most widely held ideas about the subject (Grunfeld 1972).It is important to note that, unlike kosher laws, the health as-pects of eating are an important consideration with halal laws.These laws are viewed by the Jewish community as given to the community without a need for explanation. Only in modern timeshave some people felt a need to try to justify them as health laws.For a discussion of why kosher laws are not health laws, please see J.M. Regenstein (1994).fiAnd ye shall be men of a holy calling unto Me, and ye shall not eat any meat that is torn in the fieldfl (Exodus XXII:30). Holi-ness or self-sanctification is a moral term; it is identical with . . .Knowledge of the kosher and halal dietary laws is important to the Jewish and Muslim populations who observe these laws and to food companies that wish to market to these populations and to interested consumers who do notobserve these laws. The kosher dietary laws determine which foods are fifit or properfl for Jews and deal predomi- nantly with 3 issues: allowed animals, the prohibition of blood, and the prohibition of mixing milk and meat. Theselaws are derived from the Torah and the oral law received by Moses on Mount Sinai (Talmud). Additional laws cover other areas such as grape products, cheese, baking, cooking, tithing, and foods that may not be eaten during theJewish festival of Passover. Halal laws are derived from the Quran and the Hadith, the traditions of the prophet Muhammad. As with Kosher laws, there are specific allowed animals and a prohibition of the consumption of blood.Additionally, alcohol is prohibited. Over the years, themeaning of Biblicalkosher laws hasbeen interpreted bythe rabbis to protectthe Jewish peopleand to address newissues andtechnologies

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112COMPREHENSIVE REVIEWS IN FOOD SCIENCE AND FOOD SAFETYŠVol. 2, 2003 CRFSFS: Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety moral freedom or moral autonomy. Its aim is the complete self- mastery of man.fiTo the superficial observer, it seems that men who do not obey the law are freer than law-abiding men, because they can followtheir own inclinations. In reality, though, such men are subject to the most cruel bondage; they areslaves of their own instincts, im-pulses, and desires. The first step towards emancipation from the tyr- anny of animal inclinations in manis, therefore, a voluntary submis-sion to the moral law. The con- straint of law is the beginning ofhuman freedom . Thus, the fun- damental idea of Jewish ethics, ho-liness, is inseparably connectedwith the idea of law; and the dietarylaws occupy a central position inthat system of moral disciplinewhich is the basis of all Jewishlaws.fiThe three strongest natural in- stincts in man are the impulses offood, sex, and acquisition. Judaism does not aim at the destruction of these impulses, but at their con- trol and indeed their sanctification. It is the law which spiritualizesthese instincts and transfigures them into legitimate joys of life.fl Why do Muslims follow the halal dietary laws? The main reason for the observance of the Islamic faith is to follow the Divine Or- ders.fiO ye who believe! Eat of the good things wherewith WE haveprovided you, and render thanks to ALLAH if it is He whom yeworship.fl (Quran II:172) God reminds the believers time and again in the Holy Scriptureto eat what is fiHalalan Tayyiban,fl meaning fipermitted and good or wholesome.fl fiO, Mankind! Eat of that which is Lawful and Wholesome inthe earth . . . .fl (Quran II:168) fiEat of the good things. We have provided for your sustenance, but commit no excess therein.fl (Quran XX:81) Again in Sura 6 of the Quran, entitled fiCattle,fl Muslims are in- structed to eat the meat of animals upon which Allah™s name has been invoked. This is generally interpreted as meaning that an in- vocation has to be made at the time of slaughtering an animal.fiEat of that over which the name of Allah hath been mentioned,if ye are believers in His revelations.fl (Quran VI:119) While Muslims eat what is permitted specifically or by implica- tion, albeit without comment, they avoid eating what is specifical-ly disallowed, such as:fiAnd eat not of that whereupon Allah™s name hath not been mentioned, for lo, It is abomination. Lo! The devils do inspire their minions to dispute with you. But if ye obey them, ye will be intruth idolators.fl (Quran VI:121) The majority of Islamic scholars are of the opinion that this verse deals with proper slaughtering of the allowed animals.Since Muslim dietary laws relate to Divine permissions and pro-hibitions, if anyone observes these laws, he or she is rewarded inthe hereafter, but if anyone violates these laws, he or she may re- ceive punishment accordingly. The rules for those foods that are not specifically prohibited may be interpreted differently by vari-ous scholars. The things that are specifically prohibited are just a few in number, and are summarized in the following verses: fiForbidden unto you are: carrion and blood and swine flesh, and that which hath been dedicated unto any other than Allah,and the strangled, and the dead through beating, and the deadthrough falling from a height, and that which hath been killed bythe goring of horns, and the devoured of wild beasts save thatwhich ye make lawful, and that which hath been immolated toidols. And that ye swear by the divining arrows. This is abomina- tion.fl (Quran V:3) Although these permissions and prohibitions as a divine in-junction are enough for a Muslim to observe the laws, it is be-lieved that the dietary laws are based on health reasons that sug- gest impurity or harmfulness of prohibited foods.The kosher and halal marketWhy are we concerned about kosher and halal in the secularworld? Because both kosher and halal are important componentsof the food business. Most people, even in the food industry, are not aware of the breadth of foods that are under religious supervi-sion. This section provides background on the economic aspects that make it important for the food industry to have a better under- standing of kosher and halal.The kosher marketŠaccording to Integrated Marketing, an ad- vertising agency specializing in the kosher food industryŠcom-prises almost 75000 products in the United States. In 2001, about165 billion dollars worth of products were estimated to have akosher marking on them. The deliberate consumers of kosher food; that is, those who specifically look for the kosher mark, are estimated to be more than 10 million Americans and they are pur- chasing almost 7 billion dollars worth of kosher products. Annu-ally, almost 10000 companies produce kosher products and the average U.S. supermarket has 13000 kosher products. Fewer than 1/3, and possibly as low as 20%, of kosher consumers are Jewish(900000 year-round consumers). Other consumers who at times find kosher products helpful in meeting their dietary needs in-clude Muslims, Seventh Day Adventists, vegetarians, vegans, peo-ple with various types of allergiesŠparticularly to dairy, grains, and legumesŠand general consumers who value the quality ofkosher products, even though there is rarely a one-to-one correla-tion between kosher and these consumers™ needs. Hebrew Na- tional™s slogan, fiWe report to a higher authorityfl and fiYou don™t have to be Jewish to love Levy™s Rye Bread,fl are two of the more famous campaigns used to advertise kosher products to nonko- sher consumers. AdWeek magazine in the early 1990s called ko- sher fithe Good Housekeeping Seal for the ‚90s.fl By undertaking kosher certification, companies can incrementally expand theirmarket by opening up new mar- kets. It should be noted that al- though many supermarkets definethe kosher consumer as someonewho only purchases products withkosher supervision symbols on thepackage, but there are productsthat do not always need to have a supervision mark, as we will de- scribe. This paper also includes in- formation that might assist koshersupervision agencies in addressingthe specific needs of these otherconsumer groups.The Muslim population in the U.S. is developing a stronger mar- ketplace presence each year. Over the past 30 years, many halal markets and ethnic stores have sprung up, mainly in the majormetropolitan areas. Most of the 6 to 8 million Muslims in NorthAmerica observe halal laws, particularly the avoidance of pork,but the food industry has for the most part ignored this consumer group. Although there are excellent opportunities to be realized inthe North American halal market, even more compelling opportu-nities exist on a worldwide basis as the food industry moves to amore global business model. The number of Muslims in the world Unconventionalsources ofingredients,synthetic materials,and innovations inslaughter and processing are someof the issues Muslimscholars are dealingwithMost of the 6 to 8million Muslims inNorth Americaobserve halal laws,but the foodindustry has for themost part ignoredthis consumer group

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Vol. 2, 2003ŠCOMPREHENSIVE REVIEWS IN FOOD SCIENCE AND FOOD Kosher and Halal food laws . . .is more than 1.3 billion people, and trade in halal products isabout 150 billion dollars (Egan 2002). Many countries of SouthAsia, Southeast Asia, the Middle East, and Northern Africa havepredominantly Muslim populations. Although only about 15% ofIndia™s population is Muslim, it is the second largest Muslim country in the world, after Indonesia. In many countries, halal cer- tification has become necessary forproducts to be imported. Although many Muslims pur- chase kosher food in the U.S.,these foods, as we will see in the section on Halal, do not alwaysmeet the needs of the Muslim con-sumer. The most common areas of concern for the Muslim consumer, when considering purchasing ko-sher products, are the use of vari-ous questionable gelatins in prod-ucts produced by more lenient ko-sher supervisions and the use of al-cohol as a carrier for flavors as wellas a food ingredient. The details of both ideas will be developed later in this paper. With the agreement of the clientcompany, kosher supervisors can address the needs of the non-Jewish markets. A document estab-lishing preliminary guidelines for making kosher appropriate forall of the groups mentioned above without violating Jewish lawhas been prepared (Regenstein, personal communication) andserves as a basis for a multicultural kosher dining program at Cor- nell Univ. ( Otheruniversities are also exploring kosher/halal and multicultural food options.Although limited market data is available, the most dramaticdata illustrating the impact of kosher certification in the market-place has been provided by the Coors Brewing Co. According toits market analysis, its market share in the Philadelphia, Pa., mar- ket went up 18% when the company went kosher. Somewhat less dramatic increases were observed in other cities in the Northeast.Dannon Yogurt experienced a growth in sales when it switched from a filenientfl kosher certification to one that was normativemainstream (see the section on fiDealing with Kosher and HalalSupervision Agenciesfl). A Northeastern U.S. soda-bottling com-pany let its kosher certification lapse and, as a result, their salesdropped significantly. The company quickly got recertified! In recent years, many of the large national companies havegone kosher. For some, the effort has been quite extensive. For ex- ample, when Nabisco made many of its cookie products kosher, the process of equipment kosherization (see section on Equip- ment Kosherization) took more than three years before its manybakeries around the country became kosher and all its kosherproducts could finally be marketed in the U.S. To consider wheth- er a company wants to participate in the kosher (or halal) market,its leaders need to have some knowledge about the laws them-selves to determine potential profitability. KosherThe kosher dietary lawsThe kosher dietary laws predominantly deal with three issues, all focused on the animal kingdom:a. Allowed animalsb. Prohibition of bloodc. Prohibition of mixing of milk and meatAdditionally, for the week of Passover (in late March or April) re- strictions on fichometz,fl the prohibited grains (wheat, rye, oats, barley, and spelt) in other than unleavened formŠand the rabbin- ical extensions of this prohibitionŠlead to a whole new set of reg- ulations focused, in this case, on the plant kingdom.Ninety-two percent of American Jews celebrate Passover in some way, making it the most observed holiday in the Jewish cal- endar. It also accounts for about 40% of the sales of kosher prod- ucts to the Jewish community. Although only 20 to 33% of the ko- sher market in the United States is Jewish, these consumers ac-count for more than half of the total dollar volume of the koshermarket, since they purchase kosher food more consistently. In this paper, we will also discuss additional laws dealing with special issues such as grape juice, wine, and alcohol derived fromgrape products; Jewish supervision of milk; Jewish cooking,cheesemaking and baking; equipment kosherization; purchasingnew equipment from non-Jews; and old and new flour. The kosher laws are an internally consistent logic system and have an implied fisciencefl behind themŠwhich may or may notagree with modern science. This system is the basis upon which rabbis work through problems and come up with solutions.Allowed animalsRuminants with split hoofs that chew their cud, traditional do- mestic birds, and fish with fins and removable scales are generallypermitted. Pigs, wild birds, sharks, dogfish, catfish, monkfish, andsimilar species are prohibited, as are all crustacean and mollus-can shellfish. Almost all insects are prohibited such that carmineand cochineal, which are used as natural red pigments, are notpermitted in kosher products by most rabbinical supervisors.However, honey and shellac (lac resin) are permitted, as will be further discussed later in this section.Four classes of prohibited animals are specifically described in the Torah. These are those animals that have one kosher charac- teristic, but not both. For example, the rockbadger, the hare, and the camel chew their cud but do not have a split hoof; the pig hasa split hoof but does not chew its cud. Neither category is more orless nonkosher; none is kosher, and these examples are listedspecifically only to clarify the text. In modern times, the prohibi-tion of pork has often been the focus of both kosher and halallaws, since pork is such a majoritem of commerce. Interestingly, gi- raffe is a true ruminant and has asplit hoof rendering it kosher, with specific guidelines about properslaughtering procedures.With respect to poultry, the tradi- tional domestic birds (that is, chick-en, turkey, squab, duck, and goose) are kosher. Birds in the rattrie cate- gory (ostrich, emu, and rhea) arenot kosher, as the ostrich is specifi- cally mentioned in the Bible (Lev. XI:16). However, it is not clear whether the animal of the Bible is the same animal we know todayas an ostrich. There is a set of criteria that are sometimes referred to in trying to determine if a bird is kosher. The kosher bird has a stomach (gizzard) lining that can be removed from the rest of thegizzard. It cannot be a bird of prey. Another issue deals with tradi- tion; for example, newly discovered or developed birds may notbe acceptable. Some rabbis do not accept wild turkey, while some do not accept the featherless chicken.The only animals from the sea that are permitted are those with fins and scales. All fish with scales have fins, so the focus is on thescales. These must be visible to the human eye and must be re- movable from the fish skin without tearing the skin. Cycloid and Other consumerswho at times find kosher productshelpful in meeting their dietary needsinclude Muslims,Seventh Day Adventists,vegetarians, vegans,people with varioustypes of allergiesIn many countries,halal certificationhas becomenecessary forproducts to be imported

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114COMPREHENSIVE REVIEWS IN FOOD SCIENCE AND FOOD SAFETYŠVol. 2, 2003 CRFSFS: Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety ctenoid scales found on traditional fish are generally consideredacceptable, but the ganoid and placoid scales of sharks, gar, and so on are not. A few fish remain controversial, probably swordfish(whose scales do not seem to belong to any of the biologists™ stan-dard scale types) being the most discussed fish. The Conservative movement also permits sturgeon, which most Orthodox authori-ties consider nonkosher. Most insects are not kosher. The exception includes a few types of grasshoppers, which are acceptable in the parts of the worldwhere the tradition of eating them has not been lost. The edible in- sects are all in the figrasshopperfl family identified as permitted inthe Torah due to their unique fijumpingfl movement mechanism. Again, only visible insects are of concern; an insect that spends its entire life cycle inside a single food is not of concern. The recent development of exhaustive cleaning methods to prepare prepack-aged salad vegetables eliminates a lot of the insects that are some-times visible, rendering the product kosher and, therefore, usablein kosher foodservice establishments and in the kosher homewithout requiring extensive special inspection procedures. Al-though companies in this arena go to a great deal of effort to pro-duce an insect-free product, some kosher supervision agenciesremain unconvinced and only certify those products (or particularproduction lotsŠfor example, one day the production may be ac-ceptable and the next day it might not) that meet their more strin-gent requirements. The prohibition of insects focuses on the whole animal. If one™s intent is to make a dish where the food will be chopped up in afood processor, then one may skip the elaborate inspection of fruits and vegetables for insects and assume that the presence ofinsect parts does not render the food nonkosher. There are guide- books describing which fruits and vegetables in particular coun-tries need inspection, and recommended methods for doing this inspection are included. Kosher consumers have appreciated the use of pesticides to keep products insect-free, as well as the use ofprepackaged vegetables that have been properly inspected. Mod-ern integrated pest management programs that increase the levelof insect infestation in fruits and vegetables can cause problemsfor the kosher consumer. Examples of problems with insects that one might not think about include insects under the fitrianglesfl onasparagus stalks and under the figreensfl of strawberries, andthrips on cabbage leaves. Kosher consumers and fimashgichimfl(religious supervisors on site) are trained to properly inspect thosefruits and vegetables that need to be examined. Because of the dif-ficulty of properly inspecting them, many Orthodox consumersdo not use brussels sprouts. Honey and other products from bees are covered by a uniqueset of laws that essentially permits honey and beeswax. Otherbee-derived materials; for example, royal jelly, are more contro- versial. An article by Rabbi Z. Blech (2004) discusses this uniqueset of materials and the special laws surrounding bees and honey. Most rabbis extend this permission to the use of lac resin or shel-lac, which is used in candy and fruit coatings to provide a shine.Prohibition of bloodRuminants and fowl must be slaughtered according to Jewishlaw by a specially trained religious slaughterman (fishochetfl) us-ing a special knife designed for the purpose (fichaleffl). The knife must be extremely sharp and have a very straight blade that is atleast twice the diameter of the neck of the animal to be slaugh-tered. It is the process itself, and the strict following of the law, that makes a product kosher, and not the presence or absence of a blessing over the food. However, prior to slaughter the shochet does make a blessing. The animal is not stunned prior to slaugh- ter. If the slaughter is done in accordance with Jewish law and with the highest standards of modern animal handling practices, the animal will die without showing any signs of stress. In 1958,the U.S. Congress declared kosher slaughter and similar systems(such as halal, for example) to be humane, but included an ex- emption for preslaughter handling of the animal prior to kosherand halal slaughter. To deal with problems due to inappropriate preslaughter handling, the Food Marketing Institute, the trade as- sociation for many North American supermarkets, and the Na-tional Council of Chain Restaurants are developing a set of animalwelfare-based kosher/halal standards for upright slaughter basedon the American Meat Institute™s guidelines that have existed for a number of years.With respect to kosher, or fikashrus,fl supervision, slaughtering is the only time a blessing is saidŠand it is said before commenc-ing slaughter. The slaughterman asks forgiveness for taking a life. The blessing is not said over each animal, an issue we will return to when discussing the Muslim concept of the meat of the fiPeople of the Book.fl The rules for slaughter are very strict and the shochet checks the chalef before and after the slaughter of each animal. Ifany problem occurs with the knife, the animal becomes treife; thatis, not kosher. The shochet also checks the cut on the animal™s neck after each slaughter to make sure it was done correctly. Slaughtered animals are subsequently inspected for visible in-ternal organ defects by rabbinically trained inspectors. If an ani-mal is found to have a defect, the animal is deemed unacceptableand becomes fitreife.fl There is no trimming of defective portions as generally permitted under secular law. The general rule is that a defect is religiously important if it would lead to a situation wherethe animal could be expected to die within a year. Some rabbis in- voke these rules in dealing with issues related to veterinary prac-tices; for example, injections into certain parts of the animal™s anatomy such as the neck of a chicken.Consumer desire for more stringent kosher meat inspection re- quirements in the U.S. has led to the development of a standardfor kosher meat that meets a stricter inspection requirement, main- ly with respect to the condition of the animal™s lungs. As the major site of halachic defects, the lungs must always be inspected. Otherorgans are spot-checked or examined when a potential problemis observed. Meat that meets this stricter standard is referred to asfiglatt kosher,fl referring to the fact that the animal™s lungs do not have any adhesions (fisirkasfl). The word figlattfl means smooth, re- ferring to the absence of sirkas on the lungs. The fibodek,fl or the inspector of the internal organs, is trained to look for lung adhe-sions in the animal both before and after its lungs are removed. To test a lung, the bodek first removes all sirkas and then blows upthe lung using normal human air pressure or a bike pump. The lung is then put into a water tank and the bodek looks for air bub-bles. If the lung is still intact, it is kosher. In the U.S., a glatt kosher animal™s lungs generally have fewer than two adhesions, which permits the task to be done carefully in the limited time availablein large plants. Some groupsŠparticularly Jews who originatedfrom countries under Muslim rule during the Dark Ages (that is,Sephardim)Šrequire a total absence of adhesions even in adultanimals. Such meat is referred to as fiBeit Yoseffl meat. Note that young red-meat animals must always be without adhesions. At this time we do not have a full understanding of what animal han-dling practices lead to higher incidences of lung adhesions, al- though pneumonia in the calf is certainly one consideration.The use of the word figlattfl for any other kosher product, in- cluding poultry, is only meant to convey the message that a higher standard is being used. It would be more accurate to the use theword fiMenhadrinfl (meaning a stricter standard), and this word isused on some U.S. products and in other countries. Nonglattmeat and nonmenhadrin poultry products encompass a larger percentage of the kosher marketplace (by volume).Meat and poultry must be further prepared by properly remov-ing certain veins, arteries, prohibited fats, blood, and the sciaticnerve. This process is called finikkurfl in Hebrew and fitreiboringfl

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Vol. 2, 2003ŠCOMPREHENSIVE REVIEWS IN FOOD SCIENCE AND FOOD Kosher and Halal food laws . . .in Yiddush. The person who is specifically trained to do this is called a fiMenacker.fl In practical terms, this means that only the front quarter cuts of kosher red meat are used in the U.S. andmost Western countries. Although it is very difficult and time-con-suming to remove an animal™s sciatic nerve, necessity demands that this deveining be done in parts of the world where the hind-quarter is needed in the kosher food supply. In some animals (deer, for example), it is relatively easy to devein the hindquarter. However, if there is no tradition of eating any hindquarter meat within a community, some rabbis have rejected the deer hind- quarters for that community. To further remove the prohibited blood, red meat and poultry mustthen be soaked and salted (fimeli-chafl) within 72 h of slaughter. If this is not possible, then nonglattmeat is specially washed (fibegiss-ingfl), and this wash procedure may be repeated for up to two moretimes, each time within 72 h of theprevious washing. The soaking is done for .5 h in cool water; thereaf-ter, the salting is done for 1 h with all surfaces, including cut surfacesand the inside cavity of a chicken,being covered with ample amounts of salt. The salted meat is then rinsed three times. The salted meat must be able to drain through- out and all the blood being removed must flow away freely. Short- er soaking and salting times are sometimes permitted; for exam-ple, when there is not enough time before the Sabbath or a holi-day to complete the process.The animal™s heart must be cut open and the congealed blood removed before beginning the overall soaking and salting pro- cess. Once the meat is properly koshered, any remaining fired liq-uidfl is no longer considered fibloodfl according to halacha, and the meat can be used without further concern for these issues.The salt used for koshering must be of a crystal size that is large enough that the crystals will not dissolve within the hour andmust be small enough to permit complete coverage of the meat.The salt industry refers to this size crystal as fikosherfl salt. Al- though most salt is religiously kosher, the term fikosherfl in this case is referring to the grain size. The specific process of salting and soaking meat to make it ready for use is also referred to asfikosheringfl meat.Because of its high blood content, liver cannot be soaked andsalted, but must instead be broiled to at least more than half cooked using special equipment reserved for this purpose. The liver is then rinsed, after which it can be used in any way the userwishes. A small amount of salt is sprinkled on the liver. In theory, any meat can be broiled instead of soaking and salting. However, this has not been done for so many years that some rabbis nolonger accept this alternative.Some concerns have been raised about the salt level in koshermeat. Note that only the surfaces are salted, generally using primalcuts; that is, 20 to 40 lb pieces of meat, and that the penetration ofthe salt is less than a half centimeter in red meat (N.Y. Dept. of Ag- riculture and Markets, personal communication). Many pieces ofmeat, as consumed, have therefore not been directly subjected tothe salt treatment. If salt content in a diet is a very important con-sideration, then one should cut off all surfaces and not use any ofthe drippings that come out during cooking. However, much of the salt that goes into the meat at the surface is lost during thecooking process.Another issue that can arise when meat has not been soakedand salted is that of fikavoush.fl For example, if meat trimmings sit in the blood released by meat for more than 24 h, the meat isconsidered to be pickled and cannot subsequently be soakedand salted. This meat is therefore not kosher. When large totes are used for shipping meat, it is almost impossible to preventkavoush. These totes should only be used if the meat will be re- moved within 24 h.Any ingredients or materials that might be derived from animal sources are generally prohibited because of the difficulty of ob-taining them from kosher animals. This includes many products that might be used in foods and dietary supplements, such asemulsifiers, stabilizers, and surfactants, particularly those materi-als that are fat-derived. Very careful rabbinical supervision would be necessary to assure that no animal-derived ingredients are in-cluded in kosher food products. Almost all such materials areavailable in a kosher form derived from plant oils. A possible ex-ception might be a normative mainstream gelatin, which is nowbeing produced from glatt kosher beef hides (see section on Gela-tin). Also some rennet, the cheese-coagulating enzyme, is ob-tained from the dried fourth stomach of a kosher-slaughtered milk-fed calf.There are a few concepts in Jewish law that permit materials to alter their status. The first is fiDvar Hadash,fl or new entity. If some- thing undergoes a sufficient transformation, as defined rabbinical- ly, it may become a new entity. Another concept that may help create flexibility for food manufacturers is the concept of fidry aswoodfl where the fidryingfl is defined as natural drying for over ayear. The concept is used in part to justify the use of natural calf rennet discussed aboveŠthe extraction of a chemical from such amaterial permits its use when it would not otherwise be permitted.Finally, there is the concept of finot fit for either a person or, less critically, for a dog.fl If a material is unacceptable and would not even be eaten by a dog, then the source is not considered a food,which means that anything derived from it could be kosher. Note, however, that some rabbis argue that if an identifiable object; for ex-ample, a bone, is placed into such a mixture and is then recovered,that the item was not necessarilyever unfit for a dog.Prohibition of mixing of milkand meatfiThou shalt not seeth the kid in its mother™s milk.fl (Exodus XXIII:19, Exodus XXXIV:26, Deuteronomy XIV:21) This passage appears three times in the Torah and is therefore con- sidered a very serious admonition.As a result, the law cannot be vio-lated even for nonfood uses suchas pet food. Neither can one derive benefit from such a mixture; there- fore, one cannot own a cheeseburger business. The meat side of the equation has been rabbinically extended to include poultry(not fish), as both meat and poultry need to be inspected, dev-eined, salted, and soaked. The dairy side includes all milk deriva- tives.Keeping meat and milk separate in accordance with kosher law requires that the processing and handling of all materials andproducts fall into one of three categories:a. A meat productb. A dairy product c. A neutral product called fipareve,fl fiparve,fl or fiparev.fl (For words that are transliterations of HebrewŠlike fipareveflŠmultipleEnglish spellings are acceptable.)The pareve category includes all products that are not classified Nonglatt meat andnonmenhadrinpoultry productsencompass a largerpercentage of thekosher marketplace(by volume)The salt used for koshering must be ofa crystal size that islarge enough thatthe crystals will notdissolve within thehour and must be small enough topermit completecoverage of themeat

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116COMPREHENSIVE REVIEWS IN FOOD SCIENCE AND FOOD SAFETYŠVol. 2, 2003 CRFSFS: Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety religiously as meat or dairy. Secular classifications may be defined differently. All plant products are pareve, along with eggs, fish, hon- ey, and lac resin (shellac). These pareve foods can be used with ei- ther meat products or dairy products. However, if they are mixed with meat or dairy they take on the identity of the product they aremixed with; for example, an egg in a cheese soufflé becomes dairy. A special set of rules applies to fish. Fish can be eaten at thesame meal at which meat is eaten, but it cannot be mixed directlywith the meat. The dishes used with the fish are generally kept separate and rinsed before they are used with meat, or vice versa.The original law in the Talmud speaks of a specific concern thatone particular type of fish causedpeople to get sick when they mixedthat fish with meat. Since we do notknow what fish that was and haveno modern evidence that such aproblem exists, this rabbinical health concern is no longer validor necessary according to the Con- servative Jewish movement. This is a very specific exception to thegeneralization that kosher laws arenot health laws. Another exceptionwith respect to handling fish: One of the very traditional Chassidic Or- thodox groupsŠLubavitch or Cha-badŠalso has a tradition of not mixing milk with fish; for exam-ple, not permitting a fish gelatin to be used in yogurt.To assure the complete separation of milk and meat, all equip- ment, utensils, pipes, steam, and so on must be of the properlydesignated category. If plant materials, like fruit juices, are run through a dairy plant, they would be considered under kosher law. Some kosher supervision agencies would permit such a product to be listed as fidairy equipment (D.E.)fl rather than fidairy.fl The D.E. tells the consumer that it does not contain any in- tentionally added dairy ingredients, but that it was made on dairyequipment. (See the section on fiKosher and Allergiesfl). If a prod-uct with no meat ingredients is made in a meat plant, like a vege- tarian vegetable soup, it may be marked fimeat equipment (M.E.).fl Although one may need to fiwashfl the dishes before and afteruse, the D.E. food can be eaten on meat dishes and the M.E. food on dairy dishes. A significant wait is normally required to use aproduct with dairy ingredients after one has eaten meat. This can range from 3 to 6 h, depending on the customs (fiminhagfl) of thearea from which the husband of each family came. With the D.E. listing, the consumer can use the D.E. product immediately before or after a meat meal, but not with a meat meal. Following dairy, the wait before eating meat is much less, usually from a firinse of the mouthfl with water to 1 h. Certain dairy foods do require the fullwait of 3 to 6 h; that is, when a hard cheese is eaten, the wait isthe same as that for meat to dairy. A hard cheese is defined as a cheese that has been aged for more than 6 mo or one that is par- ticularly dry and hard like many of the Italian cheeses. Thus, most companies producing cheese for the kosher market usually agetheir cheese for less than 6 mo, although with proper packagemarking this is not a religious requirement.If one wants to make an ingredient or product truly pareve, theplant equipment must undergo a process of equipment kosher- ization (see section on Equipment Kosherization). From a market-ing standpoint, a pareve designation is most desirable since it hasthe most uses, both for the kosher and for the nonkosher con-sumer. Kosher: special foodsGrape products . To be kosher, all grape juice-based products can only be handled by Sabbath-observing Jews from grape-pressing to final processing. In manufacturing kosher grape juice,then, harvesting cannot occur on Saturday and only Jewish work-ers can press the grapes. If the juice is pasteurized (heated, orfimevushalfl in Hebrew), then it can be handled by any worker as an ordinary kosher ingredient.The actual pasteurization temperature is debated, and different rabbinical groups use different temperatures. Some wineries donot pasteurize the product, preferring to hire only Jews to handlethe wine, which then does not require heating. The traditional Jewish religious wines that are still often used for religious cere-monies were historically very sweet, often made from Concordgrapes.If a liquid bottling line, a soda line for example, uses a productwith nonkosher grape juice, the line would have to be cleaned(rinsed) out before proceeding to make kosher products. The nor- mal scheduling of light to dark products in the course of the day, which is done so that the carryover from one product to the next is not observed by consumers, may need to be adjusted so that allgrape juice-containing products are run at the end of the day. One controversial issue has been the status of marc alcohol. Af-ter the grapes are pressed, hot water containing cane or beet sug-ar is added and a second press juice obtained. This is then fer- mented and a commercial (marc) alcohol obtained, whose kosherstatus remains controversial.Jewish cheese (fiGevinas Yisroelfl)Similar to the laws concerning kosher wine production, most kosher supervision organizations require the supervising rabbi toadd the coagulating agent (for example, the agent that makes thecheese form a curd) into the vat to ensure that the cheese is ko-sher. Any cheese that does not meet this requirement is unaccept- able.Kosher whey can be createdmore easily. If all the ingredients and equipment used duringcheesemaking are kosher, the whey will be kosher as long as the curdsand whey have not been heatedabove 120 °F (49 °C) before the whey is drained off. This is true even if a rabbi has not added the coagulant. The necessity for Jewish participation in cheesemaking isthat the cheese is a product fifit fora king.fl Clearly, whey does not fit into this category. There is much more kosher whey available in theU.S. than kosher cheese.Increasingly, the dairy industry is seeking to sell more whey to otherfood companies. Since many ofthese companies are kosher, there has been growing interest in assur- ing the kosher status of whey. For example, several manufacturers ofSwiss cheese, which has one of themost desirable, whitest wheys, have reduced the temperature atwhich they work the curds under the whey. Instead of using the traditional 125 to 127 °F (52 to 53 °C), they are using a tempera- ture under 120 °F (49 °C) to work the curds and to obtain a ko- sher whey. But there are challenges to be overcome. Much of the whey isproduced in spray driers, which are among the most difficult piec-es of equipment to kosherize. The process of cleaning out the en- tire system is quite time consuming. Some spray driers also have All plant productsare pareve, alongwith eggs, fish,honey, and lac resin (shellac). These pareve foods can be used with eithermeat products ordairy productsIf one wants to makea product pareve,the plant equipmentmust undergo aprocess of kosher- ization. From amarketing stand-point, a parevedesignation is mostdesirable since it hasthe most uses, bothfor the kosher andfor the nonkosherconsumer

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