producing “Burjiko, Idin and Dabqaad and art-facts. The first description of a Meerschaum. (sepiolite) occurrence in the E1 Bur area of Central Somalia was

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1 Minerals of Somalia : From exploration to artisanal production to export Abdulkadir Abiikar Hussein; London, UK ; 25 th January 2013 1. INTRODUCTION adequately explored nor surveyed properly. Since colonial and post – independence time, t he country remains to be one of final frontiers that will offer oppor tuni – ties and surprises to companies that venture in to . At present, an almost insatiable hunger exists for commodities and especially mineral resources. As the demand and price rise and the producing deposits dwindle, the global commodity sector is seeking new frontiers from which to satisfy the demand. Somalia is a new frontier area, not adequately explored that is ready to reveal its secrets of oil, gas, uranium, platinum, rare earth metals, gold, copper, iron, manganese, tin and gemstones. 2. GEOLOGICAL SUMMARY OF SOMALIA 1 Young volcanic intrusions in Awdal, Bak ool, West Hiiraan, Gedo and west Bay near the Juba River The young basalts liparitic volcanics are exposed in small narrow areas . 2 Mesozoic to Recent sediments make up most of the exposed rocks of Somalia Clastic and marine Jurassic sediments overlie the Precambrian and early Paleozoic. Cretaceous to Tertiary sediments with clastic sequences, evaporites and marine successions cover large parts of Somalia . 3 Two islolated uplift Neoprotrozoic Early Camb rian complexes One occurs west of Mogadishu in Bur Region Bur Massif The second one occurs in northern Somalia from Borame , across parallel to the Gulf of Aden. Bur Massif consists of gneisses, amphibolites, quartzites and marbles, intruded by granites. It is part of the Neo – proterozoic Mozambique Belt. The northern area with outcropping crystalline rocks, including the Darkainle alkaline complex, is part of an ea rly Paleozoic fold belt. Bur Massif and the Northern crystalline basement used to be part of the Neoprotrozoic of the Gondwana, the super – continent that rifted, broke apart and drifted to carry Madagascar , India, Antarctica and Australia away from Somalia (Africa) . The Neoprotrozoic of Tanzania, Mozambique, Madagascar and Somalia seems to have some similar characteristics. 3. E XPLORATION From the colonial times to the period of 1960 1991, Somalia’s mineral exploration was sporadic and it focused , to some extent, on the crystalline basements: Buur Massif, west of Mogadishu and the Northern Crystalline Basement, parallel to the Gulf of Aden. Some geological survey s w ere carried out mainly by the Geological survey of the Minist r y of Minerals and Petroleum, funded by UNDP or some donor countries. Other surveys were either done by the Department of Geology of the Somali National University or the Russians (previously the Soviet Union) . Those mineral surveys identified some valuable deposits of minerals though the minerals were not developed for production and export . By 1988, the mineral sector constituted only a tiny percent age of the GDP, equal to 0.3% despite the fact that minerals can help Somalia to generate hard currency neede d for meeting the demands of its public services , if surveyed and developed .

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2 4. A RTISANAL PRODUCTION Currently, mining in Somalia is primarily for production of non – metallic minerals which consist of gemstones, salt, sepiolite, gypsum and kaolin. A. Kaolin: K aolin is used for making pots and water containers in the south. Beyond that using kaolin for ceramic industry is an elien Other resources such as rock salt destined for domestic purpose s are produced by the folks traditionally . B. Rock – salt and sea – salt: Salt trade goes back to the ancient times the Ajuraan were the rulers of the regions between Central Somalia to Mogadishu, Baydhaba and to Qallafe in Ethiopia on the Shabelle River . Salt was carried on camel backs . Nowadays, r ock salt from Hiinlabi, Warshu ba and Ba adweyn in Galgaduud, Central Somalia, i s mined and transported to Mogadishu and to some towns in the Somali State of Ethiopia. Elsewhere, s alt is also mined: Hafun , Hurdiya and Zaila districts. Cxv C. Sea – salt : In Lower Juba, on Kudha shores , on south – east coast of Somalia, south of Kismayo, sea water was desalinated using solar energy technologies to evaporat e and condense into pure water. Likewise, in Jasiira, south of Mogadishu by few kilometres, seawater is trapped and left to evaporate under the sun, leaving salt rich in minerals such as Na, K, Mg, Mn, phosphates and chlorides. D. Sepiolite: In El Buur, mining of meerschaum (sepiolite) was traditionally done over the years – facts. The first description of a Meerschaum (sepiolite) occurrence in the E1 Bur area of Central Somalia was by Stahr et al. (1990). They described a material extracted and worked by local inhabitants, that produced ceramic and po pular art objects from the raw (unburned) clay. However, sepiolite has an immense industrial uses which Somali s do not benefit from it currently , though in the future this world – class deposit will attract investments. Somalia produced small quantit ies of sepiolite, which was its only mineral export. The country has large deposits of sepiolite in the El Bur area. The Indho Qabyo prospect was estimated to have resources of 19 Mt of sepiolite, which included 3.5 Mt of meerschaum – quality and 15.5 Mt o f sepiolitic material. Estimated resources in the El Bur area totaled about 100 Mt . E. Tin production : During the colonial period, tin was commercially mined by the British in Somalia before World War II in Erigabo area . There are tin – tantalum deposits located at D h alan and Majiyahan , which were exploited in the seventies by Technoexport of Bulgaria . F. Gemstones : There is a growing market for gemstones and a sustainable potential in which people can thrive and make a livi ng out of it. People are collecting gems from valleys and sometimes dig pits. Mining gemstones is artisanal and production is not developed for export. Gems for sale are not readily obtained. There are no authorised and licensed gem dealers who buy from co llectors and cut the mineral and s ell them. The markets of gemstones in Hargeisa, Bosaso and Mogadishu seem to be lacking orientation. In addition, there is no Gemmological Association that advises collectors, producers, cutters and exporters. 5. U NTAPPED P OTENTIAL AND UNDISCOVERED RESOURCES The mining sector of Somalia is new and virgin. Over the years, it was neglected and ignored. It has an immense potential, and there are countless options and opportunities to those who intend to invest in Somalia. The geological evolution of Somalia, together with abundance of mineral deposits and its diversity are pointers towa rds rich and massive potential destined for discoveries. Untapped and unexploited deposits include gold, anhydrite, bauxite, columbite, copper, feldspar , iron ore, kaolin, quartz, silica sand, tantalum, thorium, tin and uranium.

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3 On the beaches of East Berbera, the presence of simpsonite (a high – grade calcic aluminium tantal i te) in heavy mineral sand deposits is reported. The mineral is f ound in the alluvial fans that drain from the crystalline basement. This implies the presence of undiscovered tantalum resources in the adjacent basement. 6. P OTENTIAL TARGETS FOR E VALUA TION AND PRODUCTION A. Cement Production: There is a high – grade limestone (Calcium limestone) which is suitable for cement production near B erbera at Suria Malable near Berbera ; north of Baardheere Bur Anole and Markabley) and at Jiiqleey (south of Beledweyne on the Shabelle River). The cement fac tory in Berbera used to exploit the limestone for production of cement, in addition to having one of the world’s largest deposits of gypsum – anhydrite near Berbera . Around 80 90% of the raw material for cement production is limestone; clayey raw material (clay, mudstone or shale) accounts for between 10 15% and the remaining 5% is gypsum or anhydrite. B. Aggregate production: Somalia is stabilising and bouncing back to normalcy. Many towns and cities are under construction: Hargeisa, Bosaso, Mogadishu, Bay dhaba and Kismayo. Except Mogadishu, the other towns have ample rocks suitable for aggregates. Mogadishu does not have hard rock; instead it has soft rock (soft coral reef) , that will fail in Los Angles Abrasion Test on hardness of the aggregates. Crushed rocks (aggregates) and concrete and asphalt batching plants will be a booming business that has a high priority for investment. C. Piezo – quartz mining : P iezo – quartz is important for electronics and good deposits of the mineral are reported in Lafaruug and Da from those sites in the early 1980s. Piezoquartz are also found in the pegmatites of the NE Somalia. D. Uranium : Documented uranium deposits are found in three areas of Galgaduud – Mudug and in Alio Ghelle in Bur Mas sif. These deposits need further exploration and evaluation, though in 1984 work began to develop them. The Alio Ghelle deposit is small carnotite deposit, with a reported indicated resource varying between 10 – 25 Mt at 0.07 – 0.08% U O . E. Iron ore deposits: At Bur Galan and Dahimir, a low – grade iron resource was evaluated as having a depth of 200m each one and having a reserve of 394 Mt (@38.7%) grade and 30 Mt (@38.7%) grade respectively. F. Gold and platinum : Traces for the existence of gold was reported in A rabsiyo and in El Bur (placer type) in Galmudug. To date the r esults of the testing for gold ar e not available. The northern basement complex consists of a series of high – grade metamorphic rocks which enclose at least two greenstone belts that are known to contain evidence of volcanogenic gold – rich base metal deposits. A number of layered and zoned mafic/ultramafic intrusive complexes are known, and stream sampling has delineated platinum group metal anomalies associated with these igneous complexes. G. Tin: D eposits of tin – tantalum in Elayo, Majiyahan, and simpsonite in Berbera provide a good justification for exploration of those areas. H. Lithium and salt mining: The geology of the rock salts of Galmudug resembles to have formed in playa – like environment. Further evaluation could be carried out on the rock – salt deposits to confirm the existence of Lithium carbonate below the salts . I. Sepiolite production: T his deposit is one of the largest in the world. The product can be exported from Hobyo port (Central Som alia) , which is about 150 km away from El Bur. 7. C HALLENGES A Security B Infrastructure of the country C Previous data is not adequate D Expenses to re – do investigations

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4 Agro – minerals # Mineral Description of the deposit Location 1 Posphorites Metamorphosed phosphorites containing 24% P O . The deposit size is not known. Buur Massif at Moode Moode, some 25 km from Buur Hakaba, on the road to Baidoa. 2 Bird guana deposit Migratory birds vising the island year after year Hiis and Mait, on the no rth – east coast of Gulf of Aden 3 Apatites Dharkainle alkaline complex with nepheline syenites and small carbonatite intrusives Dharkainle complex, 33 x 3 km (length and width) is in northeast Borame. 4 Sepiolite Playa – flat deposits South of El Buur 5 Salt Rock salt deposits in Galmudug , Zeila, Hafun and Hurdia weyn and Dhinooda , Zeila, Hafun and Hurdia Industrial minerals 5 Gypsum or (anhydrite) The deposit is estimated to have a resource of 5 Mt of 80% pure gypsum and more than 2.5 Mt of 90% pure anhydrite Suria Malableh, South of Berbera and at Jiiqleey, 45 km north of Buulo Burte. 6 Limestone Limestone rich in calcium (Calcium limestone) for cement Deposits are found at south Berber, Jiiqley in Beled Weyne and near Markabley north of Baardheere, east of River Juba 7 Piezo – electric Quartz Pegmatite dykes and associated quartz veins emplaced into low grade metamorphic schists Lafaruug , on Berbera – Hargeisa road and in Elayo . 8 Copper Copper – bearing quartzites were surveyed at Bohl At Bohl near Abasa Wadi, south of Boon in Somaliland 9 Iron L ow – grade iron – ore resources at Bur Galan at a depth of 200 m depth of 394 Mt at 38.7% Fe) and at Dahimir similar grade iron deposit exists 1. Buur Galan in Buur Basement. This resource is 394 Mt at 38.2% 2. Dahmir body has a workable resource of 31 Mt of Fe at 35 40%. 10 Uranium carnotite 1. Small uranium (carnotite) deposit related to Buur Massif. 2. Surficial calcrete deposits with mineralisation in Gagaduud and South Mudug regions . 1. Aliyow Gelle near Bur Hakaba. The resource varies between 10 – 25 Mt at 0.07 – 0. 2. Ghelinsoor El Buur area has an estimated resource of 8000 ton of uranium oxide ( ) from ore that grades 0.116%. 08% ( ) . 3. Wabo – Mirig deposit was estimated to have a resource of 5,500 tons of 4. Dusamareb has an estimated resource of 3000 tons of from ore that graded 0.08% 11 M uscovite, tantalite, albi te , microcline and quartz Pegmatite dykes and associated quartz veins emplaced into low grade metamorphic schists Majiyahan and Elayo, Puntland or Somaliland 1 2 Kaolin Kaolin produced from Lower Cretaceous weathering deposits in northwest Somaliland 1. NW Somaliland , between Las Gal and Merodile 2. Dunes between Marka and

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5 Red sand dunes leaching and chemical weathering Chemical weathering of the granites of Bur Haybe, near Wanle Weyn Mogadishu . 3. Kaolin has been found in the Bur Area (Bur Bur, Bur Dubud , Bur Galin, Bur Narible, and Bur Siabo) and 1 3 Ilmenite and monazite Alluvial deposits at the mouth of the Juba R iver and far upstream in Luuq area Coastal dunes near the mouth of Juba River 1 4 bauxite Surficial or shallow deposit, easy to mine with 45% available alumina – a high grade deposit. A place north of Baydhaba by about 40 km north (Lat= 3.22 N and Long= 43.42 E ) 1 5 coal Coal deposit of the Dhaban Basin and in Hed Hed area. Somaliland, near Berbera 1 6 Tin : cassiterite Pegmatite dykes and associated quartz veins emplaced into low grade metamorphic schists Majiyahan and Elayo, Puntland or Somaliland 1 7 Silica sand The sand dunes between Marka and Mogadishu Quaternary sand and older Red dunes The coastal sand dunes between Mogadishu and Marka. 1 8 Co, Ni, Sc, Fe, V, Cr, Ti); and heavy mineral s like zircon, kyanite, ilmenite, and rutile Transition’ elements in laterites The coastal sand dunes between Mogadishu and Marka. 1 9 Gold Sulphide deposits in Arapsiyo and gold – quartz veins linked to pan – African granites Arapsiyo (13.5 ppm) and Abdulkadir, West Somaliland 20 Molybdenum and bismuth Vein enrichments associated with intrusive syenites and minor carbonates Arabsiyo Borame area in west Somaliland 2 1 Platinum Placer (stream) sediments adjacent to Hamar gabbro in Barkassan Mandhera complex Mandhera complex near Mandhera not far from Hargeisa 22 S impsonite (a high – grade calcic aluminium tantalate) heavy mineral sands deposits and undiscovered tantalum resources in the adjacent basement. The beaches east of Berbera implies the presence of Gemstones 2 3 Emerald, sapphire, ruby, acquamarine, opal, tourmaline, garnet, red spinel, beryl, quartz 1. Northern crystalline basement 2. Buur Massif from Dooy to West Hiiraan From Borame, Hargeisa, Sheikh to Erigabo. The north seems to be richer in gemstones than Bur Massif. From as south as Yaaq Baraawe to El Ali and Mukiile in west Hiiraan. Dimension rocks and aggregates 2 4 Granite, marbles, sandstones Bur and Bur Haybe deposit Bur Hakaba and Wanla Weyn 25 Crushed rocks Bur and Bur Haybe deposits Bur Hakaba and Bur Weyn in Hiiraan , nearest aggregate source to Mogadishu. 26 Limestone aggregates Bur Weyn in Hiiraan Bur Hakaba and Bur Weyn in Hiiraan, nearest aggregate source to Mogadishu. 27 Feldspar found in Laferug, Berdale, Bur Degis, Bur Mado, Laferug, and Waaf Dhai.

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6 References 1. Ali, MY; 2009, Geology and coal potential in Somaliland. Int. J. Oil, Gas and Coal Technology, Vol.2, No. 2. 2. Angelluci et al ; Economic aspects of red sand dunes from the Southern coast of Somalia ; Inter. Geology Review. p p. 884 889. 3. Angelluci, A et al ; 1995; Mineralogical , geochemical and sedimentological analysis on recent and Quaternary sands of the coastal region between Mogadishu and Marka. Pages 249 – 263. 4. Artini, E. 1926; Intorno alla composizione mineralogical di Quattro campioni di sabb ia, provenienti dale 102, 5. British Geological Survey; November 2005; Cement raw materials. 6. Cameroon J. 1970; The Alio Ghelle radioactive mineral occurrence in the Bur Region of the Republic of Somalia a brief summary of the principal features. Panel Proceeding Series; IAEA. 7. Chakrabarti, A.K., 1988. An appraisal of the mineral potential of the Somali Democratic Republic: Mogadishu, Somalia: The United Nations Revolving Fund for Natural Resources Exploration, 230 pages. 8. Foster B and Harison, A; 2000; Somalia – Mining Annual Review 9. Frizzo P ; 1993. Ore geology of the crystalline basement of Somalia. In: Geology and mineral resources of Somalia and surrounding regions. 1st Agron. Oltremare, Firenze, Italia, Relaz. e Monogr. 113:517 – 540. 10. Gellaty DC; The Cassiterite deposits of Dhalan, near Elayo, Erigabo District; Volume 12 of Report, Somali Republic Geological Survey Dept.; Somali Republic; 1961. 11. Greenwood, W. 1970; Mineral and gr oundwater survey of Somalia, UN Report, p.133. 12. Greenwood WR 1982. A preliminary evaluation of the non – fuel mineral potential of Somalia. US Geological Survey; Open file report 82 – 788, 42pp. 13. Heinrich W 1980.The geology of carbonatites. Krieger Publ. Co, Hun tington, New York, USA, 585pp 14. Hussein, AH. 2003; Is there gold in Somaliland?Somaliland Times on 15. Gemmological Association of Great Britain, London, 2000. 16. Lartsev, VS and Dahir M.A; 1970; The black sands at the mouth of the Juba River and the coastal area. UNDP, Mogadishu, Somalia 17. Singer A, Stahr K and Zarei M.; Characteristics and origin of sepiolite (Meerschaum) from Central Somalia . Clay Minerals (1998); 33; pp. 349 362. 18. UNDP 1970. Mineral and ground water survey – Somalia: United Nations report. 133pp. 19. Yegar, Thomas R.; 2011; The Mineral Industry of Somalia; Mineral Year Book; US Geoogical Survey 20. Yohannes 1994. Somalia, In: Mining Annual Review 1994, Mining Journal Ltd. London, p.144 Abdulkadir Abiikar Hussein ; London, UK P u b l i s h e d v i a S o m a l i T a l k . c o m | J a n 2 0 1 3

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