by M Hendricks · Cited by 47 — forbidden to kill those who pray.’”63. Again a number of interpretations can be read into this hadith. Nonetheless, it must be read in light of the Quran which

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The Equal Rights Review, Vol. Five (2010)31Islamic Texts: A Source for Acceptance of Queer Individuals into Mainstream Muslim SocietyMuhsin Hendricks11. Introduction Queer2 Muslims face a multitude of challeng -es, of which one is rejection. This is anchored by the belief that homosexuality is a major sin in Islam and punishable by death under Sha -riah law. 3 The Inner Circle 4 has documented through engaging with the local Muslim com -munity of Cape Town that most people who react harshly towards queer Muslims do so from a position of fear and ignorance of the challenges facing queer Muslims. There have been attempts in the past to raise the topic of homosexuality within Islam and to highlight homoeroticism within Muslim communities.5 Yet there is a lack of literature on the issue from a theological perspective. This perspective is necessary as most clients who approach the Inner Circle for help seek a theological answer for their inability to rec -oncile their faith with their sexuality. Scott Siraj al-Haqq Kugle 6 examines this need in his book fiHomosexuality in Islamfl 7 and braves the waters of addressing the issue from a theological point of view. However, the book is an academic piece of work and it does not provide uncomplicated answers to the ordinary Muslim. This article therefore attempts to meet this need. Islam, its sacred texts and their authenticity have been under more scrutiny in the West since 11 September 2001. This, coupled with the international queer sector™s demand for human rights, has placed pressure on ortho -dox Muslim clergy to defend its religious texts and to publicly authenticate their position on non-hetero normative sexualities. These events provided an opportunity for progres -sive Muslim thought to re-emerge. Hence, we observe progressive Muslim individuals and organisations re-opening the discourse on Islam, gender and sexual diversity in the last decade. Scholastic work such as that of Scott Siraj al-Haqq Kugle and Kecia Ali 8 was pos -sible due to the re-emergence of progressive Muslim thought around homosexuality and sexual ethics in Islam. fiAnd say: Truth has now arrived, and falsehood perished: for falsehood by its na – ture is bound to perish.” 9 It is an Islamic belief that the trajectory to – wards unravelling matters is a universal process through which truth authenticates itself over falsehood. Those who perceive themselves to be the custodians of the truth would attempt to justify and defend their po – sition as if it were the only truth, until such a time when new information is presented to them, compelling them to change their stance.Orthodox Muslims who justify their con -demnation of homosexuals often use verses

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The Equal Rights Review, Vol. Five (2010)32from the Quran 10 and hadith 11 to support their position. While Islam, through the very meaning of the word, promotes peace in all spheres of life, many queer Muslims struggle that does not include them. This often instils feelings of alienation from their communi -ties and rejection by God, friends and fami -lies. Research undertaken by the Inner Circle reveals that for many queer Muslims, casual sex, alcohol and substance abuse, attempted suicide and apostasy have become outlets for negotiating the dilemma between Islam and their sexuality. 12 This article attempts to reveal that Islam, at its very core, does not condemn non-heterosex -ual sexual intimacy. Instead, it is embraced as part of a divine plan. Islam, in its true mean -ing of peace and justice, accommodates the individual™s sexual orientation as an intrin – sic part of their biological and psychological makeup. Kecia Ali alludes to the fact that the prohibition on same-sex marriages in Islam do not stem from the Quran, but from the le -gal construction of marriage and that sexual relationships are both gendered and hierar -chical.13 However, her study does not focus on the Quranic texts that can be interpreted to support non-heterosexual marriages. This article highlights some of these verses and presents their positive interpretations. The Quran through its poetical form of ex -pression is itself open to numerous interpre -tations and meanings that are divinely in – human development and diversity within humanity. Muslims who limit themselves to – pretations of the Quran inhibit the potential of the Quran to promote social and spiritual growth. Quran 39:55 makes it clear that Muslims are instructed to extract, out of the many possi – ble interpretations, the interpretation that achieves the greatest good. If divine guidance is ignored and interpretations are personally motivated and unconsciously made, it can lead to both individual and social distress. fiWe have indeed sent our messen -gers with the evidence and we sent down with them the Book and the Balance so that humankind can continue to exist in equity.fl 14 This article explores alternative interpreta -tions of divine texts and develops their po -tential to reinforce the Quran™s inclusive na -ture which promotes equality and freedom of choice. All Muslims agree that no other laws, extrapolated from secondary sources, may contradict the Quran. Consequently, this article also zooms in on some of the contra – dictions in secondary sources such as hadith that contradict the Quran on the issue of ho – mosexuality and the punishment for public which criminalises homosexuality and dem – onstrates that such law is inconsistent with the Quran. Hadith were collected in the second half of the second century of Islam™s existence. Their late development as a source of Is -lamic law is due to the Prophet Muhammad™s (pbuh)15 prohibition of their collection. Nu -merous hadith collections report on these prohibitions. 16 The companions and follow – four Chaliphs 17 Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthmaan and Ali, as well as the Prophet™s personal scribe, Zaid bin Thaabit, refused to record sayings of the Prophet (pbuh) in compliance with the Prophet™s order. In the second cen -tury AH ,18 the Chaliph Umar Ibn Abdul-Aziz issued an order to permit the writing of ha-

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The Equal Rights Review, Vol. Five (2010)33dith believing that it would put an end to the widespread lies about the Prophet Muham -mad (pbuh). Although this might have been a noble exercise at that time, hadith collection has been and remains a challenging science for most progressive Muslims and progres -sive Islamic thought today. Hadith contain many inconsistencies, con – -tive and reliable sources of Islamic law they are deeply problematic. It is no surprise that hate crimes against homosexuals, including largely from the hadith . Nonetheless, it does present an interesting window into the histo -ry of Islam, the mindset of early Muslims and the kind of early leadership that shaped the face of Islam. Therefore, I would not discard this source in its entirety and many progres – sive Muslim scholars would agree that hadith which do not contradict the Quran present a useful elaboration on Quranic verses. The Inner Circle has noted that there is a re -siding belief amongst Muslim clergy that ho -mosexuality is a phenomenon which is non- existent in the Islamic world both past and present. In places where it does exist, it is either an idea imported by the West, or prac -ticed by ignorant or uneducated Muslims: fiHomosexuality is a moral disorder. It is a moral disease, a sin and corruption– No person is born homosexual, just like no one is born a thief, a liar or a murderer. Peo -ple acquire these evil habits due to a lack of proper guidance and education.fl 19 This article demonstrates the implausibility of this belief by showing that the act of men having sex with men existed during the time of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and dur – the existence of Islam). It also corroborates that the current interpretation of the story masculinity. 20 school of thought in Sunni Islam, there is unanimity among mainstream Sunni and Shi™a scholars that homosexuality is an adulterous act for which Hadd21 punishment applies. There is also a consensus that this sin is punishable by -ecution. This author argues that stoning to death is not a Quranic concept and that in -stead the Quran adopts a pro-life stance. It should be pointed out that Islam is not a homogeneous faith. Although the fundamen -tals of Islam extrapolated from the Quran remain unchanged, diverse cultures and – tions and perceptions of Islam. Popular Mus -lim belief holds that the Quran remains the only book in history that has not undergone changes in the last 1400 years. Unlike the hadith , which has a more complicated and sometimes questionable history of compila – tion, the Quran is believed by most Muslims to be the direct word of God to Muhammad (pbuh). 2. fiThe Best of What Was Revealedfl fiAnd follow the best of what was revealed to you from the One who has au -thority over you, before distress takes you by surprise and while you are in a state of unconsciousness.fl 22 Let™s make no apology that there are verses in the Quran that left even the Prophet Mu -hammad (pbuh) uncomfortable. While the Quran gives a husband polarised options for

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The Equal Rights Review, Vol. Five (2010)34dealing with his wife™s disobedience, from ef -fectively communicating with her to beating her, the Prophet (pbuh) never adopted the latter option. Even though such verses may appear to critics of the Quran as being prob -lematic, there is wisdom in its revelation. Muslims approach the Quran as individuals of diverse temperaments and worldviews who are shaped by our own experiences. In spite of the multiple interpretations revealed in a particular Quranic verse, Muslims often accept those observable through their per -sonal experiences. Consider that one of the reasons for the revelation of the Quran is to make communities workable. Exercising ex -treme measures for social problems does not contribute to creating workable communi – ties; instead it more naturally leads to social distress. In order for humanity to be success -ful, polarised extremes are presented in the Quran as a criterion by which individuals are reminded to assess, evaluate and keep things in the balance. However, these extremes are not divine licences to exercise wanton de – sires. fiAnd from everything we created in contrasting duo so that perhaps you would be reminded.fl 23 It is through contrast that we come to appre -ciate the positive things in life. We can only appreciate light when we have experienced darkness. Similarly we appreciate love and justice with the knowledge of what rejection and injustice feels like. As the following verses make clear the Quran places great emphasis on equality, justice and the saving of life. fiIn the Law of Equality there is the saving of life to you, o you men of understand – ing; that you may restrain yourselves.fl 24 for Allah, as witnesses to fair dealing, and let not the hatred of others to you make you swerve to wrong and depart from justice. Be just: that is next to piety: and fear God. For God is well-acquainted with all that ye do.fl 25 cause of Allah and of those who, being weak, are ill-treated and oppressed? Œ Men, women and children, whose cry is: “Our Lord! Res -cue us from this town, whose people are op – pressors; and raise for us from Thee one who will protect; and raise for us from Thee one who will help!” 26 Traditional, patriarchal views on gender and masculinity are one prominent histori – have been marginalised and rejected in dif -ferent societies. Through its commitment to the principles of equity and justice the – weaker actors in society. Islamic history is peoples from slavery, the social advancement of women and the care for the most vulner -able, including orphans. It is consistent with the teachings of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), that the vulnerable and discrimi -nated against should be protected. It seems evident that, had homosexuality, as a sexual orientation and identity, been a pressing so – cial issue during the time of the Prophet Mu -hammad (pbuh), he would have spoken for the rights of homosexuals. The Quran was revealed in a patriarchal, male chauvinistic seventh century AD Arabian so -ciety. Thus, its principal addressees are the aristocratic males of a society that contrib – uted to the appalling status of women and three years, the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)

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The Equal Rights Review, Vol. Five (2010)35managed to raise the status of women and lay the foundations for improving gender equal -ity. A common mistake that most Muslims make is to consider that the process started by the Prophet (pbuh) was conclusive. This Prophet (pbuh) which aimed to elevate and maintain the status of women and sexual mi – norities as we evolve over time. Most Islamic historians agree that Ijtihad,27 once a prized possession of Muslims and a key process in achieving a workable society, has been lost to religious control and politi -cal agenda. Ijtihad was still in practice until the tenth century AD. By the twelfth century, believing that Ijtihad led to human error and excess, most Sunni authorities declared that the doors of Ijtihad have been closed. Mi -nority views continued to discuss and sup -port Ijtihad Taqleed 28 replaced Ijtihad as a means of controlling religious liberalism. Progressive Muslim scholars today suggest that Islam is unable to adequately respond to many contemporary social problems because the doors of Ijtihad have been declared closed. The independ – ent reasoning promoted by the principle of Ijtihad which permits a clearer examination of the relationship between Islam and homo – sexuality has been used extensively to arrive to some of this article™s conclusions. 3. Freedom of Choice and Expression Verse 2: 208 and verse 2:256 of the Quran state: fiO you who have attained to faith! Enter into Islam whole-heartedly; and follow not the footsteps of the evil one; for he is to you an avowed enemy.fl 29 fiThere is no compulsion in religion: Truth stands out clear from error. Whosoev -er rejects evil and has faith in God has indeed grasped the most trustworthy hand-hold that never breaks. And God hears and knows all things.fl 30 Although these two verses generally encour -age people to adopt faith and reject disbelief, they clearly set out that the system of Islam cannot be forced upon anyone. At the same time neither should an individual pursue Is -lam half-heartedly. Islam, therefore, provides humankind the freedom to choose how they wish to live their lives, yet this freedom is not unfettered. fiAnd if they accuse you of falsehood, say: fiMy work to me and yours to you! You are free from responsibility for what I do and I for what you do!fl 31 Assuming responsibility for one™s actions precedes the freedom of choice and expres – places responsibility on Muslims and gives this Quranic injunction promotes a healthier, more tolerant understanding and apprecia – tion of others. Verses 109: 1-6 of the Quran also acknowl -edge freedom of belief: fiSay: O you who have denied faith! I do not worship that which you worship and neither do you worship that which I worship and I will not worship that which you wor -ship and neither will you ever worship that which I worship. So therefore, unto you your way and unto me mine!fl 32 The Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) was perse -cuted by the Quraishi 33 regime at the begin -ning of his mission through denying his free – dom of speech and belief. It was the Quran

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The Equal Rights Review, Vol. Five (2010)36that gave him freedom to spread his own beliefs and to employ the measures through which his vision can be realised. Those who followed his beliefs did so out of their own free will and in spite of the persecution they – lim to ignore the fact that Islam came into existence through similar struggles for free -dom of expression. Indeed, to deny the rights and freedoms to others which enabled the Prophet (pbuh) to undertake his mission would be inconsistent with his teachings. God instructed the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) not to use force as a measure in his mission: fiWe know best what they say; and you are not to subdue them by force, but through reminders in the Quran and to such who fears My warning.fl 34 In addition, Muslims believe that they are the people God chose to bring guidance to the modern world: fiYou are the best of people evolved for mankind. You enjoin what is right and you forbid what is wrong and you believe in God. If only the people of the book believed (in this message) it would have been better for them; amongst them are believers, but most of them are iniquitous.fl 35 Consequently, Muslims face the challenge of demonstrating to humanity that Islam is a good model for overcoming current social problems without using force. There is also a need to explore and consider the follow -ing sub-challenges: (i) How can Islam be instrumental in a technologically advanced information era, while there is resistance to transformation on the part of its leader -ship? (ii) What answers will Islam present to the questions of gender, sexual diversity and choice of religion without diverting from its constitution? (iii) Are Muslims re-enacting the past fears and mistakes of their early Quraishi adversaries when they were con -fronted with change? 4. The Quran and Diversity fiAnd among His signs is the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the vari -ations in your languages and your colours: Verily in that are signs for those who possess knowledge.fl 36 fiO mankind! Verily We have created you male and female, and have made you into nations and tribes that you may come to know. Truly, the noblest of you, in the sight of God, is the most God-conscious amongst you. Verily God is the Knower, the All-Aware.fl 37 The Quran illustrates the diverse nature of human beings in order to contrast it with the uniqueness of God. Language, culture, race and ethnicity were the obvious elements of diversity by which seventh century Arabs were challenged. However, modern global di – versity is evidently more extensive. Diversity is therefore a divinely intended phenomenon that challenges humanity to pursue a unify -ing trajectory. fiGlory be to God who have created the earth produces and from themselves (hu -mankind) and from that of which they pos – sess no knowledge.fl 38Scientists and psychologists broadly concur that homosexuality has existed since time immemorial and occurs naturally in the ani -mal and plant world. 39 The argument made by some orthodox Muslims is that, unlike

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The Equal Rights Review, Vol. Five (2010)38your councils (circles)? But his people gave no answer but this: they said: “Bring us the wrath of God if you are telling the truth.” 43 fiAnd he warned them of Our power, but they disputed about the warning and at -tempted to seduce his guests: whereupon We obliterated their sight. So taste then My retri – bution after the warning.fl 44 Sodom was undoubtedly the wealthiest city on the biblical Vale of Siddim in Babylon. Ac – cording to Verse 15:16 of the Quran, the city was situated directly on the trade highway known today as the Arava highway. Archaeo – with Sodom and passed from opposite sides through this highway. Sodom, known for its amenities and location on the highway, was a necessary resting point for travellers. Prophet Abraham (pbuh), the uncle of Proph -et Lot (pbuh), enunciated the divine law of honouring visitors and showing hospitality to guests and foreigners and thus Sodomites were compelled to give rest to travellers. Be – aristocratic male rulers of Sodom and Go -morrah, they refused to share resources and common space with foreigners. They carved for themselves luscious hidden gardens for personal enjoyment and enjoyed the best of -ple and foreigners were subjected to harsh social and economic treatment. Flavius Josephus, a Jewish historian, has written: “Now, about this time the Sodomites, overwhelmingly proud of their numbers and the extent of their wealth, showed themselves insolent to men and impious to the Divinity, insomuch that they no more remembered hated foreigners and avoided any contact with others. Indignant at this conduct, God accordingly resolved to chastise them for their arrogance, and not only to uproot their city, but to blast their land so completely that it should yield neither plant nor fruit what -soever from that time forward.” 45 It would not be correct to single out male-to- male sex as the sole purpose for destruction of Sodom. Sexual practices in historical Baby -lon should also not be seen in isolation from idolatrous beliefs and patriarchal pursuits for power and dominance. Sex under repressive conditions and in exploitive societies has of -ten been used to assert dominance by patri -archal chauvinistic men. Non-consensual sex which is tantamount to rape has much more to do with an associated need to dominate of Sodom the victims were not only virgin girls but also young men coerced into having sex with temple priests as part of their idola -trous rituals. According to the Quran, Sodom the crime of subjecting vulnerable men to co – ercive sex with the aristocrats. -ing to the Gods. Every father in Babylon was Temple of Ishtar. The virgins were then com – -ing to the God Ishtar so that the virgins may repeatedly deferring the ritual when he was – ters to the temple. As a last resort, and in compromise and utter hopelessness, he of -fered his daughters to the aristocrats to pro -tect his guests who were God™s angels sent to

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The Equal Rights Review, Vol. Five (2010)39warn him of the coming destruction of the cities. He responded, with a frail heart, that perhaps in this hopeless situation his daugh – ters would be purer for their rituals than the rape of the angels of God. 46To quote the Greek historian Herodotus: “The worst Babylonian custom is that which compels every woman of the land once in her life to sit in the temple of love and have intercourse with some stranger the men pass and make their choice. It matters not what be the sum of money; the woman will never refuse, for that were a sin, the money being by this act made sacred.” 47 Ishtar was the primary goddess of love and war. Ritual prostitution was performed in her name. In Cyprus where Ishtar was known by the name Aphrodite, it was the custom that unmarried women should prostitute them – selves at the goddess™ sanctuary and give the Babylon, all women, without regard to their class, acted as a prostitute at least once. 48 This indicates that the questionable sexual interactions amongst the people of Sodom and Gomorrah, as the two leading cities in ancient Mesopotamia, were not just among men. Hence, it would be incorrect to draw the conclusion that the cities were destroyed primarily due to same-sex conduct or orien -tation. In the entire Quranic parable, which spans over seventy verses, there is no allu -sion to sexual orientation or that the aristo -cratic men in question were having consen -sual sex with one another. Strong Quranic terminologies however suggest that the acts were deeply rooted in coercion and sexual primacy as opposed to consensual hetero – sexual or homosexual sex. In fact, considering the parable in its entirety, the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah re -lated to other factors, including: 1. The people of Sodom were not monothe -ists and their idolatrous beliefs dictated sexual proclivity and social and economic injustice.2. Their inhospitality to foreigners and guests -bia.3. The robberies on the trade highway are indicative of voracity and disregard for for -eigners.4. The people of Sodom exercised coercive 5. The unjust laws and practices in their councils were constituted to serve the patri -archal elite. It can thus be concluded that the parable of Lot in the Quran cannot be used as a blan -ket condemnation of homosexuality. To do so would contradict the many verses in the Quran which promote the idea of unity with -in human diversity. Moreover, a spiritual path towards the Creator requires a complete ac – judgment. This is not to say that same-sex conduct or orientation should operate in a social or moral vacuum. It merely disproves the belief that the parable of Prophet Lot (pbuh) condemns homosexuality. Scott Siraj al-Haqq Kugle™s recent analysis draws simi -lar conclusions: that the parable of Prophet Lot (pbuh) in the Quran does not suggest that consensual same-sex conduct is a sin. 49

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The Equal Rights Review, Vol. Five (2010)40In addition to the parable of Prophet Lot (pbuh), orthodox Muslim scholars have also quoted other verses from the Quran to sup -port their contempt for homosexuality. fiIf any of your women are guilty of lewdness, you must produce four reliable witnesses from amongst you against them; and if they testify, then they should be con – or God ordain for them some (other) way.fl 50 fiIf two men are guilty of lewdness, both of them should be reprimanded. If they repent and amend, leave them alone, for God is oft returning, Most Merciful.fl 51 The imprecision of these verses weaken any conclusion that they refer to sexual violations among homosexuals. In reality, it makes more sense to appropriate these verses to cover a wide range of possible public indecencies re -gardless of gender and sexual orientation. The word fifaahishahfl used in the above verses is loosely translated from Arabic as filewdnessfl or fipublic indecencyfl. It is a term which can be used to describe many acts of a shameful and sexual nature for which four witnesses are required in order to prove guilt. The high standard of proof required to prosecute such conduct operates more as a deterrent to peo -ple from randomly or spuriously accusing in -dividuals of such public indecency. 6. The Recognition of Non-heterosexuals in the Quran fiSay: Everyone acts according to his own disposition (nature): But your Lord knows well who is best guided on the way.fl 52 Verse 17:84 is a profound divine statement that recognises a deeper sense of diversity beyond religion, race and gender. Sexual ori -entation operates within this deeper sense of diversity and such phenomena often cause us to fear these diverse characteristics of fiotherfl people of whom we have little under – standing. This verse speaks to our own na – tures calling us to be true to ourselves and to return to the very core of who we are as spir – itual beings. It places judgment in the hands -tion to permit freedom of choice. fiAnd tell the believing women to low -er their gaze and be modest, and to display of their adornment only that which is apparent, and to draw their veils near to them, and not to reveal their adornment save to their own husbands or fathers or husbands™ fathers, or their sons or their husbands’ sons, or their brothers or their brothers’ sons or sisters™ sons, or their women, or the followers (of Muhammad) amongst the men who have no desires for women , or children who know naught of women’s nakedness. And let them not stamp their feet so as to reveal what they hide of their adornment. And turn unto God together, O believers, in order that ye may succeed.fl 53 Verse 24:31 of the Quran may be considered by many in the West as dictating the mod -esty of women and denying them the right to choose their own modesty. Yet, it has been extremely liberating for women at the advent of Islam when they were perceived as mere chattels of desire. By lowering their gaze and donning an extra piece of garment in pub -lic, women were demonstrating their desire to be appreciated for more than just their physicality. This demonstration would be unnecessary in front of the category of men fiwho have no desires for womenfl and poses no threat to them. One such category of men would be the men who have no natural incli -nation towards women as they would clearly

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The Equal Rights Review, Vol. Five (2010)41not pose a threat to their womanhood. In this way the Quran makes it clear that such a cat -egory of men do exist in society. fiAs for women who sit inactive and have no hope for marriage, it is no sin for them if they discard their (outer) clothing in such a way as not to show adornment. But to refrain is better for them. God is Hearer, Knower.fl 54 do not actively seek to marry. Undoubtedly these categories of women include those who have no sexual attraction towards men. refused to marry her entire life. Although this choice might not have been related to norm which she struggled to relate to Œ even though marriage by orthodox Muslims has been proclaimed as a prophetic command. Her refusal to marry could also have been at -tributed to her earlier experience with men. At a tender age, Rabi™a was kidnapped and sold to a rich slave master. Part of her serv – against her will. This, as can be observed in many cases of women coerced into sex today, -pact on her relations with men. Although the Quran largely, and rightfully so, addresses heterosexuals, it is not completely unmindful of the diversity on the continuum of sexuality. Had there been a case of homo -sexuality that necessitated a legal response from the Prophet (pbuh), the Quran would have mentioned it. However, the Prophet (pbuh) rarely engaged with mukhannathun society of Medina. Often his reprove for some individuals amongst them, as can be observed in some hadith narrations, was attributed to their behaviour as opposed to their sexual orientation. 7. Homosexuality and the Prophetic Teachings ( hadith)There are numerous recordings of hadith in which the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) for – bade the collection of his traditions for fear that they might be (i) held in higher regard than the Quran and (ii) fabricated. It should Quran. As described above, the traditions collected during the Prophet Muhammad™s time were all discarded at his command and they only resurfaced in the latter part of the second century after his death. The fact that these traditions were collected through sec -ondary sources and through an eliminatory not only their validity but also the science of the collection of hadith . It is beyond the scope of this article to ven -ture into the hadith discourse, but it is note -worthy that Imam Bukhari (265 AH), the ma -jor contributor to the collection of authentic hadith , stated that he only selected 7,300 out of 600,000 narrations for fear that the others may have been fabricated. 55 The mere fact that such a huge number of fabricated hadith may have existed puts the authenticity of the remaining hadith in doubt. Unlike the Quran, hadith has many contradictions with respect striking.A narration by Abdullah ibn Abbas, states: fiThe Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: If anyone has sexual intercourse with an animal, kill him and kill it along with him. I (Ikrimah) said: I asked him (Ibn Abbas):

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