This goal can be identified in a community plan or a strategic plan. Project plans can also be based on community goals. Page 2. or action strategies developed
91 KB – 49 Pages
PAGE – 1 ============
INTRODUCTION TO PROJ ECT PLANNING AND DEVELOP MENT Learning Objectives After completing the training, participants will: 1. Have an overview of the project planning and development process. 2. Complete activities that incorporate the 11 steps of project development. The Project Cycle The process of planning and managing projects follows a logical, continuous cycle. Each phase of the project leads to the next. The identify stage includes a needs assessment process to determine the needs and problems in a community. The design phase includes the actual planning and design of a project. The implement stage refers to the implementation of the project, whether it is a single – year or multi – year implementation period. The evaluation of project results occurs at the end of a project and involves evaluation stage then leads to the identification of additional or persisting problems, allowing the cycle to begin again. Project monito ring occurs throughout all stages allowing for small An Overview of Project Planning Project planning involves a series of steps that determine how to achieve a particular community or organizational goal or set of related goals. This goal can be identified in a community plan or a strategic plan. Project plans can also be based on community goals
PAGE – 2 ============
or action strategies developed through community meetings and gatherings, tribal council or board meetings, or other planning processes. The planning process should occur before you write your application and submit it for funding. Project planning: identifies specific community problems that stand in the way of meeting community goals. creates a work plan for addressing problems and attaining the goals. describes measurable beneficial impacts to the community that result from the det ermines the level of resources or funding necessary to implement the project. Why is project planning important? Project Planning helps us to: Project Planning helps to eliminate: think ahead and prepare for the future clarify goals and develop a vision identify issues that will need to be addressed choose between options consider whether a project is possible make the best use of resources motivate staff and the community assign resources and responsibilities achieve the best results poor planning overambitious projects unsustainable projects undefined problems unstructured project work plans Approach to Community Development The community and its involvement are central to designing and implementing a successful project. Many government and other funders seeks to fund community – based projects that reflect the cultural values, collective vision, long – range governance, and soci al and economic development goals of native communities. The following overview includes some key points to consider during the project – planning phase.
PAGE – 3 ============
L ocal decision making in achieving community self – sufficiency is fundamental in the success and posi tive growth in every community. Community involvement is central to both the strategic planning and project planning that occurs before the development of any grant application. However, in addition to a detailed description of community involvement in t he planning and implementation phases of the project, proposals must provide documentation to verify community involvement in and support for the proposed project. This documentation should explain and provide evidence of how the community was involved in determining problems faced by its members and in designing strategies for reducing or eliminating those problems. Keep in mind that each of the documentation sources listed below provides information about different elements of the planning process. Ex amples of documentation can include the following: summary of a community comprehensive plan summary of a community strategic plan summary of results from a community needs assessment Tribal Council or Board meeting minutes and/or sign – in sheets community meeting minutes and/or sign – in sheets community surveys There are different methods for involving your community in the project planning process. Below are some examples: Comprehensive Planning This process involves completing a community – wide needs assessment to engage the community in identifying and prioritizing all long – range goals and the community problems preventing the achievement of those goals. Next, the community is involved in the process of developing a method to accomplish long – range go als, also discussing initial ways to overcome the problems. This method should include a process to measure the progress towards achieving those goals. Comprehensive plans usually require at least a year to complete, and cover a five – to ten – year time sp an. Strategic Planning This is a process used when a community or organization already has a comprehensive plan and wants to move forward to achieve its long – range goals. Strategic planning
PAGE – 4 ============
involves the participation of the community in identifying pro blems that stand between the community and its goals and moves the community toward realizing its long – range strategic plan, builds on pre – established long – range goals by designing proje cts related to one or more of these goals. A strategic plan generally takes at least a year to complete. What if your organization does not have a comprehensive or strategic plan? Comprehensive and strategic planning are time – consuming processes. They require the development of a community – wide needs assessment that collects community input and is then analyzed to prioritize problems and basic needs o f the community. If your organization does not have a comprehensive or strategic plan that documents lo ng – range goals and problem areas or your specific situation does not warrant having either document, there are alternative ways of documenting community involvement. Alternative Methods of Documentation Minutes of past general council meetings or communi ty meetings that document the – range goals and problems can be used to show that your project has a history of community planning activities. This historical documentation of community problems and the project designed to add ress those problems should be supplemented through community assessments that determine current conditions and concerns. Methods for such assessments of current conditions could include focus groups, nominal group process and survey research. Additional information on these tools can be found in Appendix B . When you have chosen a process that involves the community in planning and a method for documenting the planning, you are ready to begin project development. Initiating the Planning Process Projec t planning begins with the formation of a local project planning committee or group. Whenever possible, tribes and organizations should use a team approach to plan new projects which involves staff, community members, community or organizational leadershi p, and a grant writer or consultant if necessary. The committee members play an important role in keeping the project planning process on track while also ensuring everyone has the opportunity to participate. The committee can organize meetings,
PAGE – 5 ============
conduct surveys, gather and analyze information, and meet with other agencies and organizations. This team will develop the project plan and use it to write the different parts of the application. Generally, you want to spend approximately 80% of your time plann ing your project and 20% of your time writing and packaging the grant application. Once your team is in place, the planning process generally begins with an assessment of community problems and issues involving various methods to gather community input. Based on information gathered, project developers can identify problems and issues or interests common to all members of the community to begin the process of setting community priorities. Perhaps one of the most daunting aspects of project planning is en suring community involvement, because it requires the knowledge and skills necessary to set up and conduct or facilitate effective planning sessions, large meetings, and presentations. Public meetings are essential to the development of a project with broa d grassroots support. Meetings should be held regularly throughout the planning process. Properly facilitated meetings provide a great way to gather traditional, cultural, and local knowledge. They also serve as a means to receive input on goals, objecti ves, and activities in order to determine ways to best prioritize them. Using the Community Process A large part of guaranteeing community involvement will depend on how you utilize and community process , or the way in which a co mmunity or organization involves its members in community process , or the way in which a community or organization involves its members in the decision – making process. As stated above, the public process should include the many different persp ectives that exist in the community, as this will help build unity around the project. Appendix B includes different methods for seeking community involvement in the project planning process. Appendix D includes some sample forms and ideas for meetings. In addition, keep the following in mind: Keep records . It is important to document your public process, as these documents can be included in your application. See Appendix D for sample forms. Use what already exists. An easy way to get participatio n is to think of groups that already exist in the community, such as dance, school and parent, artisan, and youth groups. Many communities also have organized public meetings.
PAGE – 6 ============
Attending these already established meetings and informally collecting informa tion saves time. Meeting with people who are viewed as wise about the community, such as elders and community leaders, is an effective way to collect valuable information. These individuals can also help in encouraging support from oth ers. Additionally, do not discount including youth. Getting the Word Out Ensuring that a maximum number of people know about the meeting can be a challenge. Here are some approaches that might be helpful: Create colorful and interesting flyers and post them everywhere (post office, airport , stores, schools, clinics, laundromats, churches, etc.). The flyer should briefly and clearly state the purpose of the meeting and why it is important to attend. Indicate the times the meeting starts and ends. A sk all local media (radio, television, and newspapers) to run free notices or public service announcements. Post your meeting on any public calendars maintained in your community. Elicit the help of community organizations to notify their members. Inv iting them to become active participants right from the start is a good way to initiate the collaborative process. Issue personal invitations to community leaders, elders, and any individuals you anticipate might oppose your ideas or project. Boosting Attendance It is often difficult to motivate people to leave home and attend a meeting, especially when the meeting is devoted to broad issues of visioning and planning. There are numerous ways to maximize attendance such as: Provide free childcare dur ing the meeting. Offer door prizes that require the winner to be present. Offer free refreshments or organize a potluck supper. Make sure there are no scheduling conflicts with other community events. Or, conversely, hold your meeting in conjunction wi th other, relatively brief local events, such as an award ceremony, a groundbreaking, or the opening of a new facility.
PAGE – 8 ============
PROJECT DEVELOPMENT STEPS When planning for and designing a new project, it is suggested using the following ten steps of project development: 1. Identify the Long Range Goals comm community subset might be the community elders, local school student population, or any of the definable sub – association, for example, may develop a long range goal that describes a community where all children graduate from high school, where a large percentage of graduates go on to some form of higher education, and where funding is sufficient to provide assistance so that students can attend their postsecondary school of choice. There may be The point is to envision an overall community, or a subset of the community, living i n an ideal situation. If you could snap your fingers and create the perfect community what would it look like? What are its characteristics? What kinds of opportunities for achieving stability and self – sufficiency are available? What resources are avai lable for the members of the community? This activity provides a framework for constructing long – range community goals that point in the right direction. You envision a place where n the direction Refer to Appendix C for additional long range goals statements. 2A. Conduct a Community Assessment to Identify the Problem
PAGE – 9 ============
A successful project is one that was designed based on a good understanding of the comm unity conditions and identifies the problems preventing the community from achieving its long – range goal(s). Community conditions include aspects of the community such as its geographic location, demographics, ecosystem, and history. A community assessme nt can be conducted to identify the problem(s) and determine which adverse current community condition a project will address. A community assessment can also be used to gather information once a specific problem has been identified, in order to design a project that will effectively address the problem. There are several methods of conducting a community assessment and different methods are appropriate for different situations. The method used should be selected based on the information you are collecti ng in order to produce a useful result. You can also use more than one method, and are encouraged to do so, as this will produce more comprehensive results and better describe current conditions in your community. Before beginning a community assessment, it can be helpful to make a list of the pieces of information you are trying to find, the source of each piece of information, and the means of gathering each piece of information. The following table can be used f or this exercise (for a complete blank table, see Appendix D ). Information Required Source of Information Means of Gathering Information Comments Identify types of items purchased by tourists in other regions of the Pacific. Contact native businesses in heavily visited areas of the Pacific. Survey and follow – up with phone calls Contact Pacific Native regional and village corporations to identify native businesses. All of the information you gather during a community assessment is valuable and can be used as a basis for defining a problem and determining the goal, objectives, and activities for your project. Some questions to keep in mind when planning and conducting a community assessment: What conditions are being assessed? By whom? For whom? Wh y? Whose adverse conditions do the findings describe? Refer to Appendix B for methods of conducting a community assessment.
PAGE – 10 ============
Problems (negative current conditions) are those things that would have to change – or be overcome – in order to achieve the long – range goals of a socially and economically healthy community. Problems can be internal as well as external and identifying the specific problems is critical in designing a successful project. Once you have completed your community assessment, you can def ine and describe problems in your community. The next step is to select the problem or problems you wish to address with your project through a community – based planning process. A project is generally more successful if it focuses on either one large pro blem or a small amount of specific problems, as this will help keep the scope of your project within achievable boundaries. Once any problems to be addressed have been identified, the community can design solutions to reduce or eliminate the identified problem. It is better to generate as many ideas as possible through focus groups and/or other community brainstorming methods, assisted by your project planning committee. List as many ideas as you can think of – these could become the basis for your proj ect. The ideas will directly address the list of problems to be overcome and will become the basis for your problem statement . A problem statement describes a current critical condition or set of conditions affecting a defined group of people in a spec ific place at a specific time. The problem statement should include a clear, concise, and precise description of the nature, scope, and severity of the problem or problems the project will address. Typically, the statement identifies the specific physica l, economic, social, financial, governmental, institutional, behavioral, native language, or cultural challenges of the community. The statement will include the information gathered from your needs assessment. Preparing the problem statement is a critic al part of the project planning process as it will be included in your application and must prove that your proposed project addresses and meets an important need in your organization and community. The design and purpose of your project must also directl y relate to your problem statement. Below, find a sample problem statement:
PAGE – 11 ============
The number of Pacific Island youth not completing high school has risen 1% each year for the past ten year. The community assessment also found that the Pacific Island youth ar e not identifying with their native culture and language and the numbers of Native language speakers are declining by 6% each year. In developing your problem statement, there are some things to keep in mind: The problem to be addressed should have a clear relationship to your – term goals. Include accompanying information such as statistical facts, testimonials, interviews, and survey results provide additional support for your efforts to address the problem. address using available resources. Be sure to include documentation of community involvement. Think about what the long – term impact will be of addressing the problem. Additional tips for writing a problem statement: Accompanying information should be well – documented and should not include assumptions. Focus your explanation of need on the geographic area your organization serves. Give a cle ar sense of the urgency of your request. Always provide a baseline population number if you reference percentages in the problem statement 2B. Assess Available Resources Assessing your available resources will help determine the best strategy for impleme nting your project and should be part of your community assessment process. Begin this analysis with the resources that currently exist within the community. Every project and every strategy is different and requires a different set of resources, but a f ew hard – and – fast rules exist in the assessment of available resources. The answers to these five questions work well for project development. The next step in this analysis looks beyond the immediate community for assistance. Who and where are potentia l partners with a shared interest in your community and its challenges? What mutual benefit collaborations can be developed with partners? What expertise and resources do the partners possess? What opportunities exist in the greater
91 KB – 49 Pages