pdf. Page 30. |30|. Marzano, R.J., Pickering, D.J., & Pollock, J.E. (2001). Classroom instruction that works: Research-based strategies for increasing student

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!”!National Behaviour Support Service (NBSS) Navan Education Centre Athlumney Navan Co. Meath Telephone: +353 46 9093355 Fax: +353 46 9093354 Email: nbss@ecnavan.ie Web: www.nbss.ie The National Behaviour Support Service (NBSS) was established by the Department of Education & Skills in 2006 in response to the recommendation in School Matters: The Report of the Task Force on Student Behaviour in Second Level Schools (2006). The NBSS is funded by Teacher Education Section (TES), Department of Education and Skills. © 2014 National Behaviour Support Service !

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!!#$%&’%&( !Introduction ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ 5 Academic & Behaviour Support ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ 6 – Supporting Reading Development ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ 7 – Best Approaches ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ 8 – Catch Up Literacy: Key Elements ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ. ÉÉ 9 – Evaluating Catch Up Literacy ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ 11 Findings & Discussion ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ 12 ) Reading Progress ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ 12 ) Attitudes, Experiences and Reading Behaviours ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ 13 ) Behaviour for Learning Skills ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ 18 ) TeachersÕ Perspectives ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ 19 Conclusion ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ 24 Acknowledgements ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ 27 References ÉÉÉÉÉ ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ 28 Appendix ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ 32

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!!!+,-!The National Behaviour Support Service (NBSS) was established by the Department of Education & Skills in 2006 in response to the recommendation in School Matters: The Report of the Task Force on Student Behaviour in Second Level Schools (Martin, 2006) . The role of the NBSS is to assist partner schools in addressing behavioural concerns on three levels: ¥ Level 1: School -wide Support ! Level 2: Targeted Intervention Support ! Level 3: Intensive, Individualised Support The NBSS model of support draws extensively from Positive Behavioural Interventions and Supports (Sugai & Horner, 2002), Response to Intervention (Fuchs & Fuchs, 2006) and the Comprehensive, Integrated, Three -Tiered Model of Prevention (Lane, Kalberg, & Menzies, 20 09) frameworks. The integration of these frameworks offers opportunities to address the behavioural needs as well as the social, emotional and academic needs of students effectively, with interventions at different levels of intensity and support. This pro blem -solving model is founded on international best practice (Bo hanon et al., 2006; Carr et al., 2002; Duffy & Scala, 2012; Ehren, Deshler, & Graner, 2010; Hawken & Horner, 2002; Lewis & Sugai, 1999; McPeak, Trygg, Minadaki s, & Diana, 2007). In NBSS partn er schools this three -tiered approach is applied to behaviour interventions as well as interventions that address the social, emotional and academic literacy and learning needs of students. All three levels of support to NBSS partner schools are customised to the specific characteristics, needs and requirements of each partner school on an on -going basis as change occurs. NBSS interventions and support emphasis e using evidence -based practices for promoting behaviour change. .%&/$012&3$% !

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!!+4+!Research highlights how behavio ural and academic problems exert reciprocal influences on one another. The reciprocal nature of this association is evident with behavioural difficulties affecting children and young peopleÕs academic achievement (less time on task, absenteeism, peer and a dult rejection) and similarly academic failure leading to low self -esteem, alienation from the school community, negative behaviours and in some cases early school leaving (McEvoy & Welker, 2000; McIntosh, Flannery, Sugai, Braun, & Cochrane, 2008). The res earch points to the importance of recognising the links between academic and behaviour difficulties and coordinating systems for prevention and intervention in both areas (Bulotsky -Shearer & Fantuzzo, 2011; Byrne & Smyth, 2010; Miles & Stipek, 2006; Trzeni ewski, Moffitt, Casp, Taylor, & Maughan, 2006; Valiente, Lemery -Chalfant, & Swanson, 2010). To support students to develop the academic literacy, learning and study skills needed to succeed at post -primary , the NBSS looks to the research, nationally and internationally , on Adolescent Litera cy and to the most effective practices and strategies for addressing the literacy needs of all adolescent learners (National Behaviour Support Service, 2009). NBSS Level 1 academic literacy support for example , involves the explicit teaching of comprehensi on, thinking and learning skills and strategies (Biancarosa & Sno w, 2006; Blachowicz & Ogle, 2001; Duke & Pearson, 2002; Keene & Zimmerman, 1997; Kosanovich, Reed, & Miller, 2010; Marzano, Pickering, & Pollock, 2001; National Reading Panel, 2000; Pearson, Roehler, Dole, & Duffy, 1992; Pressley, Johnson, Symons, McGoldrick, & Kurita, 1989; RAND Reading Study Group, 2002) as well as building and strengthening writing skills. The latter not only improves writing ability but also enhances students’ ability to r ead a text accurately, fluently and comprehensively (Graham & Herbert, 2010; Graham & Perin, 2007). The NBSS supports teachers to integrate effective strategies across subject areas that can enable students to read and write a wide range of texts, help them to become strategic thinkers and problem solvers and provide them with opportunities to apply comprehension, writing and learning strategies in many different contexts. 5260’732!8! 9′:6;3$1/!<1==$/& !ÔÉresearch points to the importance of recognising the links between academic and behaviour difficulties and coordinating systems for prevention and intervention in both areas.Õ PAGE - 8 ============ !!+?+!Additionally, the analysis revealed that 4.3% (N=96) of the students receiving NBSS Level 3 support had reading ages of 7 years or less. Many of these students must overcome the obvious disparity between their reading skill level and the reading skills needed to access the curriculum and learn from complex subject area texts at post primary. Unfortunately, for many learners the gap between their skill level and that of their peers continues to grow over time. Stanovich (1986) describes this as the ÔMatthew EffectÕ Ð how, in reading, the rich get richer and the poor get poorer - students who experience difficulty with reading are exposed to much less text than their more skilled peers. Students who are more skilled experience a Ôbootstrapping of further vocabulary, knowledge, and cognitive structuresÕ creating an even bigger gap between the skilled and the less skilled reader (p.360). In addition, many students who have difficulty with reading suffer emotional and psychological consequences, including low motivation, anxiety and lack of self -efficacy (Wigfield & Eccles, 1994). BEST APPROACHES Best approaches to su pporting reading development have been extensively researched (Brooks, 2007; Chard, Vaughn, & Tyler, 2002; National Reading Panel, 2000; Rose, 2009; Rowe, 2005; Snow, Burns, & Griffin, 1998; Taylor & Ysseldyke, 2007). Systematic phonics, word recognition, fluency, comprehension, vocabulary, oral language skills and working memory have all been identified as key to the acquisition of reading skills, as has a holistic approach to high quality reading instruction. Developing these key reading skills by providi ng targeted and intensive interventions has also been identified as crucial (Eurydice Network, 2011; Scammacca et al., 2007). Kamil et al. (2008) point out Ôhelping students learn specific reading strategies, and providing intensive and individualised instruction appear to be especially promising methods for improving the outcomes of struggling readersÕ (p.31). Greg Brooks in his review of ÔWhat works for pup ils with literacy difficultiesÕ, noted that Ôalthough good classroom teaching is the bedrock of effective practice, most research suggests that children falling behind their peers need more help than the classroom normally provides. This help requires coor dinated effort and trainingÕ (Brooks, 2007 p. 31). Additionally, individual or small group targeted interventions and programmes that are highly structured, systematic and implemented with fidelity have been found to be the more effective (National Readin g Panel, 2000; Singleton, 2009). Since 2008, as part of NBSS Level 2 support (targeted group interventions) and NBSS Level 3 support (intensive, individualised support) partner schools have implemented research validated strategies, approaches and programm es to develop k ey reading and literacy skills. R esearch validated or evidence -based means that a particular programme or collection of practices has a record of success and that ÔÉ66.3% (N=1,450) of students were reading three or more years below their chronological agesÉ 4.3% (N=96) of the students receiving NBSS Level 3 Support had reading ages of 7 years or less.Õ PAGE - 9 ============ Catch Up Literacy: A NBSS Level 3 Intervention to Support Struggling Readers !+@+!there is reliable and valid evidence to suggest that when used with a particul ar group of students, the students can be expected to make adequate gains in literacy achievement. For example , teachers have explicitly taught comprehension, vocabulary, fluency, writing and study skills or implemented specific literacy and reading progra mmes such as Corrective Reading, Toe by Toe, Acceleread Accelewrite, Rapid Plus, ARROW, Spell Write Right, Wordsworth, SNIP Literacy, Comprehension Strategy Instruction and the Vocabulary Enrichment Programme. However, it is important to note that research also highlights that regardless of the programme or strategy it is the teacher and learning situation that make the difference (Bond & Dykstra, 1997). CATCH UP LITERACY Ð KEY ELEMENTS The diversity of student needs, learning styles, teaching style s and classroom conditions that exist in any school means no one ÔrightÕ strategy or programme can teach each student the skills they nee d to read and succeed in sc hool. No one programme, strategy or approach holds the answer to addressing literacy difficulties in schools (Dowker, Holmes, & Reid, 2012; Kamil et al., 2008). However, using research -validated reading intervention programmes as one element of targeted support for learners with low levels of li teracy achievement can play an important role in a schoolÕs repertoire of prevention or intervention supports to students. !Cognisant of the fact that using a research -validated programme is only one element in the design of targeted support, the NBSS in 2010 introduced Catch Up Literacy as an intervention programme that partner schools should consider when planning support for learners in receipt of NBSS Level 3 support, who also had difficulti es in reading. !Catch Up Literacy is a one -to-one structured literacy intervention developed in 1998 at Oxford Brookes University in partnership with Caxton Trust (Clipson -Boyles, 2000). It has been identified by the UK Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF) as an evidence -based Wave 3 intervention (Brooks, 2007) , i.e. interventions that have been shown to provide effective one -to-one support for struggling readers. Catch UP Literacy is implemented in over 4,000 schools in the UK and employed with clusters of schools by 60 UK Local Authorities. In 2009 the intervention was also piloted successfully at schools in New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania, in Australia. The intervention is appropriate for learners between the ages of 6 and 14 appro ximately, though school s do use it with older students whose reading age is significantly below their chronological age. It is a book -based intervention where learners are given one -to-one support to read a book that is at an appropriate level of difficult y. The intervention begins with diagnostic/formative assessments that enable the teacher to set literacy targets, establish individual strengths a nd identify the appropriate starting point for support . Following the assessments the intervention is comprised of two 15 -minute ÔÉusing a research -validated programme is only one element in the design of targeted supportÉÕ PAGE - 10 ============ !!+AB+!sessions per week, per student that teach a range of skills, strategies and concepts, including phonological knowledge (visual and aural), sight recognition of high frequency words, cueing strategies and the links between reading and writing. Each session begins with the Prepared Reading Approach that focuses on reading for meaning, followed by the student reading independently while the teacher uses the Pause, Prompt, Praise method and observes and records any miscues. A linked writing activity is completed in the final part of the session. These methods are grou nded in research from Clay (1991 ), Stanovich (1980), Goswami (1994), Glynn , Mc Naughton & Robinson (1987) among others. The structure of the Catch Up sessions mirror those in Marie ClayÕs Reading Recovery programme and incorporates the Pause, Prompt Praise strategy devised by Stuart McNaughton, Ted Glynn and Vivviane Robinson - the benefits of both these approaches Ôhave been e xtensively evaluatedÕ (Wearmouth, Solar, & Reid, 2002 p.2) and the model of reading instruction used is based on the interactive approach that Stanovich (1980) and Blachowicz, Barr, and Sadow (1985), among others argue is necessary for effective reading in struction (Dowker, Holmes, & Reid, 2012). Though selecting an effective reading programme that is grounded in research is essential, a crucial element in the successful implementation of any literacy intervention is teacher knowledge and expertise. Slavin, Lake, Davis, and Madden (2011) in their research review of what works in closing the gap in educational achievement for young people living in poverty, in relation to improving reading , argue that Ôprofessional development in specific proven approaches, using well -specified materials, is more li kely to produce positive outcomesÕ. While Cynthia Shanahan (2005) in her review of adolescent literacy intervention programmes points out that Ôif teachers do not have the appropriate pedagogical content knowledge, they will be less likely to be able to u se materials sensitively, to make adjustments when necessary, or support student learningÕ (p.8). As professional development and support is such a crucial component of literacy instruction the NBSS introduced the Catch Up intervention to partner schools a s it incorporates comprehensive and integrated training for teachers by accredited trainers. Between 2010 -2012, 150 teachers had access to a range of professional learning and support opportunities. For example, to support the successful implementation of the intervention , teachers attended three half days of training where they were taken through the key elements and theory of the programme by Dee Reid, consultant and co -creator of Catch Up Literacy . A gap between training days allowed the teachers to impl ement elements of the intervention and any queries or clarifications were addressed on the following training day. A further half day training session was provided for the member of staff who would manage and oversee the implementation of Catch Up Literacy in their schools. In addition to these days, a further training session for all teachers was held approximately six months later. This day involved reviewing the delivery of the intervention and also provided further advice and guidance. Ongoing support a nd ÔProfessional development and support is a crucial component of literacy instructionÉÕ PAGE - 11 ============ Catch Up Literacy: A NBSS Level 3 Intervention to Support Struggling Readers !+AA+!advice were provided throughout the year from the schoolÕs NBSS Regional Development Officer, Assistant National Coordinator, Literacy Development Officer as well as through the UK Catch Up via online access, phone or email. The Catch Up Literacy traini ng is accredited by the UK Open College Network (OCN) which provides accreditation services for adult learning and is a recognised UK national qualification awarding body. This accreditation was open to the teachers in NBSS partner schools who trained duri ng 2010 -2012. EVALUATING CATCH UP LITERACY The adoption of a programme described as Ôresearch -validated or evidence -basedÕ does not guarantee reading success for learners. Teachers and school management (and support services) must also evaluate strategies, approaches and programmes through the lens of their particular school and setting. They need to consider if the programme meets the needs of their students in their setting, with the resources they have available for implementation. To assist schools in this process, the NBSS asked the teachers who had trained in the intervention to monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention, b y administering the following research instruments: - The Salford Reading Test (pre and post intervention); - NBSS Student Attitudes to Reading Survey (pre and post intervention); - NBSS Teacher Questionnaire (post intervention); - NBSS Student Learning Behavio ur Checklist (pre and post intervention) . The following section presents the findings from the Catch Up Literacy intervention in NBSS partner schools 201 0-2011 and 2011 -2012. Data was obtained for 333 students who received the Catch Up Literacy intervent ion in 58 post -primary schools. ÔÉevaluate strategies, approaches and programmes through the lens of their particular school and settingÉÕ 648 KB – 36 Pages