by M Erdil · 2016 · Cited by 1 — hadith by Islamic scholar and thinker Gülen will be utilised as a (n.d), muqith.files.wordpress/2010/10/development-of-hadith.pdf.

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1 | Page M. FETHULLAH GÜLEN S UNDERSTANDI N G OF SUNNAH Submitted b y Mustafa Erdil A thesis in total fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy School of Theology Faculty of Theology and Philosophy Australian Catholic University Res earch Services Locked Bag 4115 Fitzroy, Victoria 3065 Australia 23 JULY 2016

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S TATEMENT OF A UTHORSHIP AND S OURCES This thesis contains no material published elsewhere or extracted in whole or in part from a thesis by which I have qualified for or been awarded another degree or diploma. of the thesis. This thesis has not been submitted for the award of any degree or diploma in any other tertiary institution. All research procedures in the thesis received the approval of the relevant Ethics/Safety Committees (where required). Mustafa Erdil 23 JULY 2016 Signature :

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3 | M. Understanding of Sunnah ABSTRACT The aim and objective of this study is to highlight the importance of and the status of had ith in Islam, as well as its relevance and reference to s unnah , the Prophetic tradition and all that this integral source of reference holds in Islam. Furthermore, hadith , in its nature, origin and historical development with its close relationship with t he concept of memorisation and later recollection came about after the time of Prophet Muhammad. This study will thus explore the reasons behind the prohibition, in its initial stage, with the authorisation of recording the hadith s and its writing at anot her time. T he private pages of hadith recordings kept by the companions will be sourced and explored as to how these pages served as prototypes for hadith compilations of later generations. hadith , as they exist as integrals parts complement ing each other, provides the impetus and by hadith . In addition, this research will also identify the law – making characteristic of hadith , and the implications and regulations the hadith project and provide in their role as the second primary source of Islam. The approach of Western scholars to the hadith will also be a focus , considering why their perception s o f hadith are quite different from those of Muslim scholars . Within this spe cific definition of hadith , its meaning according to Islamic terminology sunnah also translated broadly as tradition, practice discourse, and prophetic observations and approvals. The critical approach to religion with the emergence of the Age of Enlightenment in Europe prompted Western scholars to formulate some overly critical views and perceptions of Christianity and Judaism . Later these scholars chose to

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4 | M. Understanding of Sunnah subject Islam to the same process of criticism and investigatio n as their own fundamentally from the more traditionally accepted perceptions of hadith held by Muslims in this regard. To counter the discourse, the teachings and written works of Fethullah Gülen will be analysed and brought into the spectrum. Muslim scholars, by convention, s unnah , to emphasise the importance of sunnah since the early period of Islam. In this reg ard the teaching of had ith by Islamic scholar and thinker Gülen will be utilised as a source and reference point. Unlike what has hitherto be en prescribed in traditional madrasah perspectives and contributions to the discipline of hadith , and innovative new methods he introduced , would be another perspective of this study. As for methodology, the method of investigation will rely on a research Th erefore, this re search will employ content and discourse analysis which is a social science methodology that is based on an understanding of human communication, including writing and context . 1 1 Siddiqi Muhammad Zubayr, ts Origin, Development &Special Features (Cambridge,UK: The Islamic Text Society, 1993). p, 220

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5 | M. Understanding of Sunnah Acknowledgements My special thanks will first and foremost go to P rofessor Ismail Albayrak, Professor Raymond Canning and Dr. Edmund Chia under whose supervision this research was produced. I am obliged to them for their time and limitless support provided during this enterprise. This thesis would not have tak en form wit hout their fortitude. I am genuinely obliged to the Australian Catholic University, for awarding me an APA scholarship and grants for the conference in US which assisted me in completing my study in the best way. I owe warm thanks to Dr. Mark Stone zealous ly editing this study. I also genuinely appreciate Dr. Salih Yücel and Dr. Recep Dogan for their participation in my confirmation and pre – submission seminars. I also will like to deliver my special thanks to the ACU Library staff ( es pecially Strathfield C ampus) and friends for assisting me to consume all the resources I needed for the research. Last of all, I am also genuinely indebted to my family for their patience, dedication and endless support.

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6 | M. Understanding of Sunnah TABLE OF CONTENTS Context of the study and Intended Area of Research .. . 10 Significance of the Study .. .. 13 Research Ques tions .. .. .. . 14 Organisation of Thesis .. .. . 15 Literature Review .. .. .. 16 Early Hi story of Hadith Collection .. .. . 16 Muslim approach to hadith in contemporary time .. . 18 Literary Works about Fethullah Gülen .. .. .. 23 Sunnah 25 Electronic sources .. .. .. . 29 Methodology .. .. .. 30 Chapter One: Hadith in Islam and its importance. .. . 35 Hadith and s unnah (prophetic tradition) as primary sources in Islam 35 Definition of hadith ? .. .. .. 37 Relationship between hadith and sunnah .. .. 39 Hadith as the second primary source .. .. . 44 Technical terms for various types of hadith .. . 47 Development of had ith literature .. .. . 48 Recording of hadith in the time of the Prophet .. .. 48 Prohibition on writing hadith .. .. . 50 Permission for writing hadith .. .. 53 Veracity of the companions in recording of hadith .. .. 55 Quali ties sought in Hadith narrators (Rawi) .. . 59 sunnah and hadith ) .. 63 Conclusion .. .. .. . 69 Chapter Two: Thoughts and assessments on hadith in contemporary time 71 Introduction .. .. .. .. 71 Western and Muslim worlds from scholarly, religious and philosophical perspectives .. .. .. .. 72 Western literary works of hadith studies: .. .. 75 Motives urging the West to study Islamic sciences and hadith . 82 Western views on the recording of hadith .. . 86 hadith 92

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8 | M. Understanding of Sunnah .. .. 247 .. . 248 tasattur (being covered/headscarf) .. . 252 .. .. 256 The notion of toleran .. .. 264 Gülen’s academic level of interfaith dialogue and proposed solutions 268 Works of toler ance based on sunnah .. .. .. 270 Interpretations regarding terrorism and suicide bombers .. 274 The definition of jihad s approach .. 275 sunnah to jihad . 277 Suicide, suicide bombings and the approach of th e sunnah . 279 The Sunnah .. .. 282 Chapter Five: Gülen as a student of hadith. .. .. 285 .. .. .. 285 .. .. .. .. 286 Works that he has read .. .. 288 Gülen as a teacher of hadith and his teaching methods .. 289 .. .. . 293 Lesson preparations .. .. . 295 Summarising .. .. .. . 296 Comparing, discussing and commenting .. . 298 The question and answer method .. .. .. 301 Using technology for educational purposes .. 301 The I slamic sources taught by Gülen .. .. .. 302 .. . 304 tices .. . 305 The logic of reasoning and researching in theology .. .. 306 The sensitivity in making provision of Islamic science .. 312 Chapter Six: Conclusion .. .. .. 314 Introduction .. .. .. 314 Significance of the res ults and general conclusion .. . 315 The contributions of the thesis .. .. 318 Limitation of the Study .. .. .. 319 Recommendations for future research .. .. . 320 Conclusion .. .. .. .. 322

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10 | M. Understanding of Sunnah Context of the study and Intended Area of Research The aim of this study is to emphasise the position and importance of hadith in Islam, its close relationship with the concept of sunnah , and its nature, origin and historica l development. Exploring the recordings of hadith in the time of Prophet Muhammad , 2 while specifically drawing attention to the fact that they were written down under his direct supervision, this study will highlight the reasons behind the prohibition, at one stage, and authorisation of recording the hadith s in writing at another time. It will also explore the private pages of hadith ( sahifah ) recordings kept by the companions these pages served as prototypes for hadith compilations for later generations. Gülen is a post – modern contemporary writer and scholar with a large worldwide following. His works have been translated into many languages. He is a balanced thinker understanding the surrounding issues related to my thesis. Gülen is a specific hadith scho lar with a balanced view strikingly creates understanding of past and present issues and challenges issues arising from critiques and rejecters of hadith both in the modern – secular as well as the Islamic world. ng of hadith and sunnah as well as his approach to hadith , his views on sunnah as a primary source, and the place and value of sunnah in his daily life. Furthermore, his methods of interpretation and teaching of hadith will be surveyed and explored. An inv olved study requires some background information on hadith as a prelude to the topic. In this study, however, this background information will be limited to thoughts and assessments on hadith in contemporary time , such as historical research on hadith in t he West, epistemological differences between Muslim and non – Muslim scholars, and effects of modernism on 2

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11 | M. Understanding of Sunnah Muslim scholars. Various views and discussions on sunnah that have taken place in contemporary time will be studied in general terms. Furthermore it w hadith , as they are an integral part of each other, with specific emphasis on the interpretation of hadith . It will also point out the law – making quality of hadith , and examine the reasons w hy they are considered second in importance only after the Research es carried out in the West about Islamic disciplines are generally hadith hadith will be studied in detail at a later stage, however, it is clear that compared to the Muslim approach their perception of hadith is quite different. Before considering the definitions and understanding of hadith within the West, we look into the meaning and definition of hadith within the traditional Islamic context, and immediately note that hadith specifically for the totality of words, actions and tacit approvals of the Prophet. Within this specific definition of had ith , its meaning according to Islamic terminology sunnah also translated broadly as tradition, practice discourse, and prophetic observations and approvals. Using the dissimilar views of scholars in terms of hadith , the study takes a close look at different perspectives. To complete the discourse, the teachings and written works of Fethullah Gülen will be analysed and brought into the spectrum. The leader of a movement, Fethullah Gülen is a scholar and intellectual who h as endeavoured to cultivate a peaceful new generation equipped with a positive approach s unnah particularly on contemporary interpretations of hadith and understanding of the philosophy of sira ( the life of the Prophet) in relation to the needs of our time . His new approach and

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