Catchwords = the words printed in capital letters, which are the primary constituents of this Index. Phrase = an indication, under a catchword, of a field of subject
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All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means (electronically, mechanically, by photocopying, recording or otherwise) without the prior permission of the copyright owner. WIPO PUBLICATION No. 561E/8 ISBN 92-805-1443-1 WIPO 2005

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1 INTRODUCTION General Remarks 1. The International Patent Classification (hereina fter referred to as fithe Classificationfl) is a system for the classification and retrieval of technical information contained in patent documents. This Catchword Index is intended to indicate the part or parts of the eighth edition of the Classification in which a technical subject is likely to be found. It must be stressed that this Index in no way replaces any part of the Classification, and must not be read as modifying the effect of anything in the latter. 2. The Index is based on catchwords chosen as indicative of technical subjects which may be of interest to a user of the Classification and for which more or less definite places in the Classification can be assigned. Since, as explained in the Guide to the Classification, contained in Volume 5 thereof, there are several factors to be considered when classifying technical subjects, it is not to be expected that all material that is relevant to a given query is to be found in one place, nor is it possible to provide a complete list of all places where information relevant to a given technical subject might be found, especia lly in respect of possible fields of use. Nevertheless, a search in the places indicated should disclose the greater part of the relevant material, and may also suggest other places in which to pursue the search. 3. In the course of the basic period of IPC reform (1999-2005), the Classification has been divided into the core and the advanced levels which constitute the eighth edition (2006) of the IPC (detailed information on IPC reform is available in the Guide to the IPC). This Catchword Index is intended for users of both the core and advanced levels. When the same entry in the Catchword Index is relevant for classification symbols in the core and advanced level, the classification symbol of the advanced level is given in round brackets after the corresponding classification symbol of the core level. Terms Used 4. The following terms are used in this Introduction: Catchwords = the words printed in capital letters, which are the primary constituents of this Index. Phrase = an indication, under a catchword, of a field of subject matter covered by, or associated with, the catchword. Classification symbols = the alphanumerical codes denoting a particular part of the Classification i.e., a subclass (sometimes a class) and (in many cases) a group or groups. Elaborations = the subdivisions of the Classification. Place = one, or a related series of subdivisions of the Classification, in which a technical subject can be classified, e.g., subclass, group.

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2 Entry = a catchword or phrase, together with associated symbols of a place or places in the elaborations. Reference = placed after a catchword, or after a phrase, and indicating another catchword that may be relevant. Symbols Used 5. The following symbols are used in this Index: – (in a phrase) represents the catchword above it; = (always between brackets) introduces a synonym or a word or phrase indicating the sense in which a catchword is used, as in the following example: LIGHTERS (1) [= barges] B63B 35/28 (2) [= devices for igniting] see also IGNITING; * (placed after a Classification symbol, especi ally in the chemical field) indicates that the technical subject in question may be found also in other places in the same class; (See also paragraph 13, below.) ** see the Notes at the beginning of Section F, subsection fiEngines or Pumpsfl; + before a catchword or a phrase indicates that this catchword or phrase refers to an indexing code. It is important to note that indexing codes can only be used in association with relevant classification symbols and that not all industrial property offices assign indexing codes to patent documents because their application is not obligatory (see Chapter IX of the Guide to the IPC); [ ] should be ignored or interpreted as round brackets, depending on the context (the square brackets are intended for manipulation of the data by computer); ( ) (used for classification symbols) indicat es that the classification symbol is an advanced level classification symbol. Advice to Readers 6. The reader should be prepared to give some thought to the choice of appropriate catchwords. He should not expect to find a ready answer to every question or be satisfied with the first relevant answer found. 7. A reader seeking information on a particular subject is advised: (a) to consider the boundaries and essential features or limitations of the subject in question, bearing in mind, in particular, that things have both an intrinsic nature and a particular field of use (see paragraphs 85 to 88 of the Guide) and that different catchwords may be relevant for different points of view;

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4 13. In the case of many chemical compounds, symbols of the elaborations are marked with an asterisk (*). This indicates that compounds of the kind in question may be found in a number of other places in the same class, in accordance with classification rules set out at the beginning of the class or subclass. The symbols given are those of the first place, or the most important places, where the substance may be found. 14. Entries which are worded in terms of particul ar applications (e.g., LINE(S) for fishing) are to be read as restricted to subject matter specially adapted to the stated applications. If no restriction is stated, the entry is to be read as covering the subject matter broadly. 15. In the case of entries for substances fiused infl particular fields of art (or with equivalent wording) it is to be understood that the substance per se is normally to be found in the appropriate general class, and the application class covers only the selection or manner of use of the substance for the particular application. 16. A reference following a phrase or entry relates only to that phrase or entry and not to any higher one, for example, under LATHE(S): fimaking LATHE(S) or like toolsfl, the reference fisee also TOOL(S)fl is relevant only to the entry fimaking LATHE(S) or like toolsfl. 17. In the majority of cases a word may be read as covering analogous subject matter, i.e., as though the words fior the likefl were added, provided that the extended meaning is not contrary to the wording at the place referred to in the entry. 18. In many cases the relevant subclass (or even class) is quoted without indicating any group, when it is considered that sufficient further guidance is given in that subclass, e.g. by the Subclass Index which may be provided in the elaborations (see paragraph 21(c) of the Guide). 19. In case of doubt as to the meaning of certain terms, the Glossary in the Guide may be found helpful. In addition, it should be mentioned that the term fivehiclefl is used in a very wide sense, covering ships, aircraft, sledges, etc., in addition to road and rail vehicles. 20. In compiling this book, care has been taken to avoid the use of trademarks as catchwords, but inadvertently some words which are used in one country or another as a trademark may have been included. 21. Anyone finding that there appears in this edition a trademark, for the use of which he has a right to protection, is invited to notify the International Bureau of WIPO. 22. The Internet version of the Catchword Index is available on the WIPO IPC Web site ( 23. Communications relating to this Index should be addressed to: World Intellectual Property Organization 34, chemin des Colombettes 1211 Geneva 20 (Switzerland)

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ABACUSES ACETALS 5 A ABACUSES G06C 1/00 ABATTOIRS building aspects of — E04B E04C E04D E04F E04G E04H 5/00 equipment for — A22B ABERRATION correcting — of particle beams in discharge tubes H01J 3/00 (3/12) 29/56 ABIETIC ACID C07C 51/00 61/00 (61/29) ABRADING — by grinding, polishing or blasting B24 — of printing-surf aces B41N 3/00 disintegrating material in general by — B02C 19/00 disintegrating wood by — B27L 11/00 finishing filaments, yarns, threads, cords or ropes by — D02J 3/00 (3/02) shoe-finishing machines for — A43D 95/00 (95/08) ABRASION investigating — G01N 3/56 ABRASIVE(S) — bodies; — sheets B24D — f illers for macromolecular compositions C08K — materials C09K 3/14 — particles C09C 1/68 chemical paint or ink removers with — C09D 9/00 (9/02) polishing compositions with — C09G 1/00 (1/02) producing — plastic articles C08J 5/14 selection of — particles for blasting B24C 11/00 soaps and detergents containing — C11D 3/14 9/04 (9/20) ABS (Antilock Braking System) B60T 8/17 (8/176) ABSORBENTS — for body fluids A61F 13/00 — in general B01J ABSORPTION — of electromagnetic waves radiated from aerials H01Q 17/00 — of gases in discharge tubes H01J — in general B01D 15/00 — of s ound waves G10K 11/00 refrigeration machines operating by — F25B separating gases or vapours by — B01D 53/14 ABUTMENTS — for bridges E01D 19/02 ACCELERATION control of — G05D 13/00 electric switches responsive to — H01H 35/14 influencing — of lifts B66B 1/24 measuring — G01P ACCELERATORS — for electrically-charged particles H05H ACCESS doors and gates controlling — to lift cages or lift wells B66B 13/00 17/00 (17/36) means for registering how often — is afforded, e.g. through turnstiles G07C 9/00 mountings for facilitating — to electric apparatus H05K ACCIDENTS preventing — in machinery F16P preventing — in road traffic B60 G08G preventing — on railways B61L rail vehicle features concerned with preventing — B61D 15/00 (15/06) B61F 19/00 road vehicle features concerned with preventing — B62D 41/00 vehicle features concerned with preventing — B60J 9/00 (9/02) B60Q 7/00 B60R 19/00 21/00 ACCOUNT(S) — books, forms or files B42D B42F electric digital computers for accounting G06F 17/00 19/00 keeping — B42D 11/00 ACCUMULATING temporarily — strip or wire in connection with metal-working B21C 49/00 temporarily — strip or wire in connection with rolling mills B21B 41/00 temporarily — web or filamentary material in general B65H ACCUMULATOR(S) — for preheated water in steam boilers F22D electric — [= sec ondary batteries] H01M 10/00 fluid-pressure — F15B 1/00 (1/02) non-portable — lamps F21S 9/00 (9/02) portable — lamps F21L 4/00 steam — F01K 1/00 ACETAL RESINS C08G 2/00 ACETALS C07C 27/00 41/00 (41/48) 43/00 (43/30)

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ACETATE ADDITIVE(S) 6 ACETATE — esters C07C 69/00 (69/12) — salts C07C 53/00 (53/10) ACETIC ACID C07C 27/00 51/00 53/00 (53/08)* preparing — by microbiological processes C12P 7/40 (7/54) ACETOIN preparing — by microbiological processes C12P 7/24 (7/26) synthetic — C07C 49/00 (49/17) ACETONE C07C 27/00 45/00 49/00 (49/08) — carboxylic acid C07C 53/00 (53/08) preparing — by microbiological processes C12P 7/24 (7/28) ACETYLENE generating — by wet met hods C10H purifying — C07C 11/00 (11/24) ACETYLIDES C07F ACID(S) see also catchwords for the particular acid(s), e.g. AMINO, CARBOXYLIC, FATTY inorganic — C01 organic — C07 ACIDIMETERS G01N 21/77 (21/80) 27/416 ACOUSTIC Damping of — waves G10K 11/00 (11/16) ACOUSTICS see also SOUND(S) room — E04B 1/99 ACRIDINE — dyes C09B 15/ 00* 62/00 — or hydrogenated — or derivatives thereof C07D 219/00* ACROBATIC — apparatus adapted for artistes A63J 7/00 ACRYLIC — acid C07C 27/00 51/00 57/00 (57/04) — acid polymers C08F 20/00 (20/06) 120/00 (120/06) 220/00 (220/06) — resin coating compos itions C09D 133/00* — resin compositions C08L 33/ 00* — resins C08F 20/00 120/00* 220/00 ACRYLONITRILE C07C 255/00 (255/08) polymers of — C08F 20/00 (20/44) 120/00 (120/44) 220/00 (220/44) ACTINIDES C22B 60/00* see also NON-FERROUS inorganic compounds of — C01B C01C C01G 56/00* producing — by c onversion of chemical elements G21G ACTINIUM see ACTINIDES ACTINOMETERS G01J 1/00 (1/50) ACTUATORS — including electromagnets H01F 7/06 dynamo-electric — H02K fluid-pressure — F15B linear — using piezo-electric effect, electrostriction or magnetostriction H02N 2/02 ACUPUNCTURE A61H 39/00 ACYL — halides see CARBOXYLIC ADAPTERS electric — H01R 31/06 ADAPTIVE — control systems G05B 13/00 ADCOCK — aerials H01Q 21/08 (21/14) ADDING see COMPUTING ADDITION — r eactions in general C07B 37/00 (37/02) ADDITIVE(S) — for adhesives C09J 11/00 — for lubricants C10M

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ADDRESSING AFTER-TREATMENT 7 — for macromolecular compositions C08K see also COMPOUNDING INGREDIENTS, MACROMOLECULAR — for petrol (gasolene) C10L 1/10 ADDRESSING — memories G06F 12/00 machines for — B41L 45/00 to 49/00 ADENINE C07D 473/00 (473/34) ADENOSINE C07H 19/00 (19/167) ADHESION anti-slip materials C09K 3/14 increasing vehicle wheel — B60B 39/00 investigating — G01N 19/00 (19/04) ADHESIVE(S) see also BONDING, GLUE additives for — C09J 11/00 — based on glue or gelatine C09J 189/00 — based on inorganic constituents C09J 1/00 — based on macromolecular organic compounds C09J 101/00 to 201/00 — based on polymerisable organic compounds C09J 4/00 — films or foils C09H 9/00 (9/02) C09J 7/00 — other than — based on glue or gelatin C09J apparatus for applying — , in general B05C applying — by hand or desk devices B43M 11/00 attachment devices using — F16B 47/00 electrically conductive — for use in therapy or testing in vivo A61K 50/00 joining sheets or webs of paper, cardboard, metal foil or plastics by — B29C 65/00 B65H 21/00 mending garments with — A41H 27/00 surgical — A61L 24/00 ADITS E21D 9/00 ADMINISTRATION Date processing systems or methods, specially adapted for — G06Q 10/00 ADORNMENTS — of natural feathers A41G 9/00 ADRENALINE C07C 215/00 (215/34) ADRIAMYCINS C07H 15/00 (15/252) ADSORPTION B01D 15/00 — of gases in discharge tubes H01J refrigeration machines operating by — F25B separating gases or vapours by — B01D 53/02 treating liquids with adsorbents B01D 15/00 ADVANCING — mechanisms for mine-roof supports E21D 23/00 (23/08) ADVERTISING G09F ADZES B27G 17/00 AERATING — of beverages A23L 2/00 — of dough A21C 1/00 (1/10) — of meadows or lawns A01B 45/00 (45/02) — of milk A01J 11/00 (11/04) — of water, waste water or sewage C02F domestic water supply jet regulators with means for — E03C 1/02 (1/084) AERIAL(S) H01Q dummy — H04B 1/00 (1/72) systems using Adcock — G01S 3/02 (3/08) tracks for — rope railways E01B 25/00 (25/16) AERODROME — installations B64F 1/00 AEROMETERS G01N 9/00 AERONAUTICS B64 AEROPLANES see AIRCRAFT AEROSOL(S) adding propellants to — containers B65B 31/00 — containers B65D 83/14 biocide or pesticide — A01N 25/06 materials for — C09K 3/30 medicinal — A61K 9/12 producing — B05B AFFIXING — of articles by adhesives or by suction F16B 47/00 — of labels B65C AFTER-BURNERS — of combustion apparatus F23 — of engine exhaust apparatus F01N 3/10 — of jet-propulsion plant F02K 3/00 (3/10) AFTER-TREATMENT see also HEAT TREATMENT, TREATMENT — of applied coatings B05D 3/00 — of fibreboard D21J 1/00 (1/10) — of mortar, concrete, artificial stone or ceramics C04B 41/00 — of paper D21H 17/00 to 25/00 — of plastic products B29C 71/00 C08J 7/00 chemical — of artificial filaments during manufacture D01F 11/00

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