by S Franck · Cited by 10 — of mean orbital radii which imply moderate planetary surface temperatures But there is the possibility that moons of giant planets are within a habitable zone.

102 KB – 10 Pages

PAGE – 1 ============
3 Habitable Zones in Extrasolar Planetary SystemsSiegfried Franck, Werner von Bloh, Christine Bounama, Matthias Steffen,Detlef Schönberner and Hans-Joachim SchellnhuberIf we ask the question about the possible existence of the life outside the Earth, we firsthave to determine the habitable zone (HZ) for our solar system. The HZ of distancesbetween a main sequence star and an Earth-like planet is roughly defined as the rangeof mean orbital radii which imply moderate planetary surface temperatures suitable for the development and subsistence of carbon-based life. The latter precondition is usu-ally taken as the requirement that liquid water is permanently available at the planet‚ssurface. The HZ concept was introduced by Huang [1, 2] and extended by Dole [3] and Shklovskii and Sagan [4].For our purposes, an Earth-like planet is one similar in mass and composition toEarth. It‚s mass has to be sufficient to maintain plate tectonics in order for the globalcarbon cycle to operate and stabilize the surface temperature.It is generally accepted that the Earth™s climate is mainly determined by the atmos-pheric CO2 level. On geological time scales, i.e. over hundreds and thousands of mil-lion years, the Earth™s climate is stabilized against increasing insolation by a negativefeedback provided by the global carbon cycle: higher surface temperatures increase the precipitation and so increase the weathering rates resulting in decreasing atmospheric CO2 content and decreasing greenhouse effect. In the case of lower surface tempera-tures, the negative feedback loop acts analogously.We know that at present only our Earth has liquid water at its surface. It is well-known that Venus is much too hot for the existence of liquid water. At the Venusianorbit the insolation is too strong that the above described negative feedback breaks down: on Venus the atmosphere became so full of water vapor that no infrared radia-tion from the surface was able to escape to space. The resulting higher surface tem-peratures forced the vaporization of water to the atmosphere. This positive feedbackeffect is called firunaway greenhousefl. On the other hand, the negative feedback loop stabilizing Earth™s climate may also fail, if we would shift the planet too much away from the Sun. At such distances CO2 condenses to form CO2 clouds that increase theplanetary albedo, i.e. the reflection of solar radiation, and cause lower surface tem-peratures. If the planet™s surface would be covered with snow and ice, the albedowould increase further. This positive feedback loop is called firunaway glaciationfl.Concerning Mars, we presently know of no life, but there is an ongoing discussionabout the possibility that life might have been there in the past. The present Martiansurface temperature is so low that CO2 condenses and the polar ice caps contain amixture of CO2 ice and water ice (see Chap. 6, Jaumann et al.). However, the climateon Mars may not always have been so inhabitable. Early in its history, the climate isthought to have been more suitable for the existence of liquid water at or near the

PAGE – 2 ============
48S. Franck et al.surface. The evidence comes from the interpretation of images that show the geologyof the surface features (see e.g., [5]). According to our investigation of the HZ for the solar system [6], the Martian orbit position was within the HZ up to about 500 million years ago.Jovian-type planets do not have a solid or liquid surface, covered by an atmosphere,near which organisms may exist. Therefore, usually they are considered as inhabitable.But there is the possibility that moons of giant planets are within a habitable zone. The best candidate for producing a habitable environment is Europa, the second Galileansatellite of Jupiter, with a mean density of about 3 g ´ cm-3 and therefore mostly com-posed of rock, but there are also enough volatiles. Due to low surface temperaturesand additional internal heat sources (tidal heating), only a subsurface ocean could exist. A good analogue for possible life underneath the ice of Europa can be found in Lake Vostok, Antarctica. There, microorganisms exist at ice depth of 3 km. NASA plans to investigate the possible subsurface ocean of Europa with the help of a spacecraft. An-other interesting object is Saturn™s moon Titan with a methane-rich atmosphere, inwhich photochemical reactions may create organic molecules. Titan™s atmosphere will also be studied by the mission CASSINI (see Chap. 24, Foing). A detailed investigation about habitability of moons around giant planets is given by Williams et al. [7].The same type of stability calculations described above for the solar system with theSun as the central star can also be performed for stars other than our Sun. Such investi-gations are of special importance, because we now have novel techniques for the de-tection of extrasolar planetary systems (see also Chap. 2, Udry and Mayor). The ex-pected basic results for the HZ around other central stars are relatively simple: to havea surface temperature in the range similar to the Earth™s, a planet orbiting a central star with lower mass would have to be closer to the star than 1 Astronomical Unit (AU, i.e.mean distance between Earth and Sun), whereas a planet orbiting a brighter star that hasmore mass than our Sun, would have to be farther than 1 AU from the star. But the problem is a little bit more complicated: we also have to take into account the different times that stars spend on the so-called main sequence. The main sequence is a band running from the upper left to the lower right on a plot of luminosity versus effective radiating temperature. Such a plot is called Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. Stars on the main sequence receive their energy mainly from hydrogen burning, i.e. the fusion of hydrogen to helium. In our investigation of extrasolar planetary systems [8], we have used a parameterization for the luminosity of main sequence central stars in the mass range between 20% and 250% solar masses.Dole‚s [3] estimations of the HZ have been based on an optical thin atmosphere anda fixed albedo model. He finds 0.725 AU for the inner boundary and 1.24 AU for theouter boundary of the HZ, respectively. Hart [9, 10] calculated the hypothetical evolu-tion of the terrestrial atmosphere over geologic time for different orbital radii. Hefound that the HZ, i.e. the fiecological nichefl between runaway greenhouse and run-away glaciation processes is amazingly narrow for stars like our Sun: It is delimitedfrom below by Rinner = 0.958 AU and from above by Router = 1.004 AU, where Rinner rand Router are the inner and outer limits to the mean orbital radius, respectively.A main disadvantage of those calculations was the neglect of the negative feedbackbetween atmospheric CO2 partial pressure and mean global surface temperature via thecarbonate-silicate cycle as discovered by Walker et al. [11]. The inclusion of that feed-back by Kasting et al. [12] produced the interesting result of an almost constant inner

PAGE – 3 ============
3 Habitable Zones in Extrasolar Planetary Systems49boundary of the HZ but a remarkable extension of its outer boundary. In subsequentyears, the HZ approach experienced a number of refinements and the extension to other classes of main sequence stars [13-15]. An overview is provided by Doyle [16]. Recent studies conducted by our group (see particularly, [17, 8]) have generated a rather com-prehensive characterization of habitability, based on the possibility of photosyntheticbiomass production under large-scale geodynamic conditions. Thus, not only the avail-ability of liquid water on a planetary surface is taken into account but also the suitabil-ity of CO2 partial pressure. Our definition of habitability is described in detail in thenext part, especially by Eq. (3.5).At the present time, the determination of habitable zones in extrasolar planetarysystems is of special interest, because in the last few years up to ~50 objects have beenidentified with the help of novel techniques [18]. Unfortunately, most of the discov-ered planets are giants on orbits surprisingly close to the central star. Nevertheless,there is hope to find also Earth-like planets with the help of those astronomical ob-serving programs, launched in the early 1990s that rely on planet detection in the MilkyWay via gravitational microlensing observation and other techniques [19]. The most important programs are Massive Compact Halo Objects (MACHO), Probing LensingAnomalies Network (PLANET), Experience pour la Recherche d‚Objects Sombres(EROS), and Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiments (OGLE).Gravitational microlensing events occur, when a faint or dark star passes the line ofsight of a more distant, brighter star. The light rays emanating from the latter are bentby the gravitational field of the closer, fainter star. This results in a discernible magni-fication of the image of the brighter object. A planet orbiting the faint star can cause aminor extra peak in the magnification record.Summarizing we can state that the HZ is the range of orbital distances from a star, inwhich a planet can maintain liquid water and biological productivity on its surface. TheHZ can be calculated with the help of climatological approaches or within the frame-work of Earth system science. According to our model, the HZ for the present solarsystem extends between about 0.95 AU and about 1.2 AU [6] and was broader in the past. For extrasolar systems we can postulate a distinct HZ for young central stars in the mass range between about 0.4 and 2 solar masses.The next two parts describe model calculations for the Sun and for other single mainsequence stars, respectively. In the final we give our main conclusions and point outseveral areas for future work.3.1 Models for Calculating the HZ in the Solar SystemSince the early work of Hart [9, 10], there have been many improvements in climaticconstraints on the inner and outer boundaries of the HZ. The most comprehensive work in this field is the paper by Kasting et al. [13]. The authors define the boundaries of the HZ via so-called critical solar fluxes. For the inner radius of the HZ they give three different estimations based on the following assumptions:1. loss of planetary water by a moist greenhouse [20],2. loss of planetary water by a runaway greenhouse,3. observation that there was no liquid water on Venus‚ surface at least for thelast 1 Ga.

PAGE – 4 ============
50S. Franck et al.The outer radius of the HZ is also calculated by three different approaches:1. estimation based on observations and arguments that early Mars had a warm andwet climate (see also the recent papers [5, 21]),2. maximum possible CO2 greenhouse heating (but see also [22]),3. first condensation limit of CO2 clouds that increase the planetary albedo.Assuming the possibility of a ficold startfl, i.e. an originally ice covered planet that wasinitially beyond the outer HZ boundary enters the HZ due to HZ boundary shifts with time, Kasting et al. [13] found the following values for the present HZ in the solar system:1. most conservative case:0.95 AU 1.37 AU,2. least conservative case:0.75 AU 1.90 AU,3. intermediate case (favored):0.84 AU 1.77 AU.The modeling approach by Franck et al. [17, 8] is based on the ideas introduced byCaldeira and Kasting [23]. Therefore, a careful simulation of the coupling betweenincreasing solar luminosity, the silicate rock weathering as parameterized by the mean rate Fwr, and the global energy balance forms the cornerstone of the investigation. As adirect product, the partial pressure of atmospheric carbon dioxide Patm and the biologi-cal productivity P can be estimated as a function of time t throughout planetary pastand future. In the following we give the crucial elements of the causal web employed.The global energy balance of the planet’s climate is usually expressed with the helpof the Arrhenius-equation [24].()()441bbrTtSas=-(3.1)where a is the planetary albedo, s is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant, and Tbbr is theeffective black-body radiation temperature. The time dependence of the solar constantS is fitted with the help of a formula given by Gough [25]. The surface temperature ofthe planet Ts is related to Tbbr by the greenhouse warming factor:.TTTbbrsD+=(3.2)Usually DT is parameterized as a function of Ts and Patm [23, 26].The total process of weathering embraces first the reaction of silicate minerals withcarbon dioxide, second the transport of weathering products, and third the depositionof carbonate minerals in sediments. The basic assumptions and limitations of this ap-proach are given in Franck et al. [26]. The weathering rate Fwr is a key function in ourmodel. For any given weathering rate the surface temperature Ts and the carbon dioxideconcentration in the soil Psoil can be calculated self-consistently [23, 26, 17].The main role of the biosphere in the context of our model is to increase Psoil in re-lation to the atmospheric carbon dioxide partial pressure and proportional to the bio-logic productivity, P. P is considered to be a function of temperature and carbondioxide partial pressure in the atmosphere only.()÷÷øöççèæ-+-÷÷÷øöçççèæ÷÷øöççèæ°°–=PPmin21min2max25251PPPPPCCTatmatms(3.3)

PAGE – 5 ============
3 Habitable Zones in Extrasolar Planetary Systems51Pmax is the maximum productivity and is assumed to be twice the present value[27]. P1/2 + Pmin is the value, at which the pressure dependent factor is equal to 1/2 andPmin = 10 ppm the minimum value for photosynthesis. For fixed Patm, Eq. (3.3) pro-duces maximum productivity at the optimum temperature (Ts = 25 °C) and zero pro-ductivity outside the temperature tolerance interval (0 – 50 °C).First we have solved the system of equations under the assumption that the weath-ering rate Fwr is always equal to the present value Fwr,0. This is clearly a rather roughapproximation. We call this approach the geostatic model (GSM).Franck et al. [17] have introduced the geodynamic model (GDM). In this case a bal-ance between the carbon dioxide sink in the atmosphere-ocean system and the meta-morphic (plate-tectonic) sources is expressed with the help of dimension less quantities[28]:, f = f fsrAwr×(3.4)where fwr º Fwr / Fwr,0 is the weathering rate normalized by the present value, fA º Ac /Ac,0, is the continental area normalized by the present value, and fsr º S / S0 the spread-ing rate normalized by the present value. With the help of Eq. (3.4) we can calculatethe weathering rate from geodynamical theory [17]. Our model is sketched in Fig. 3.1.Based on our calculation scheme, we define the HZ as the range of all orbital dis-tances, where the biological productivity is greater than zero:()()(){}0,,,:>P=tRTtRPRHZsatm(3.5)In our calculation with the help of the model shown in Fig. 3.1 [17] we found thefollowing values for the present HZ: Rinner = 0.97 AU and Router = 1.39 AU.3.2 HZ Around Other Main Sequence StarsThe same type of HZ calculations, both on the base of climatic constraints and on thebase of Earth system modeling as well, can be performed for stars with masses differ-ent from the solar mass.Kasting et al. [13] restricted themselves to stellar lifetimes greater than 2 Ga whichcorresponds to masses less than 1.5 Ms (1 Ms = one solar mass). At the low-mass endthey restricted themselves to masses greater than 0.5 Ms, because stars with masses£0.5 Ms show negligible evolution. Stellar luminosities and temperatures were takendirectly from Iben [29, 30], climatic constraints correspond to their so-called interme-diate case. As expected, stellar HZ‚s for more massive stars are rather short, becausethey have to be truncated at the end of the main sequence. HZ‚s for low mass stars are essentially the same over time. In Fig. 3.2 we show the so-called zero age main se-quence HZ from Kasting et al. [13] as function of stellar mass.In our calculation of HZ in extrasolar planetary systems [8] we used the luminosityevolution of central stars on the main sequence in the mass range between 0.8 and 2.5Ms. The results have been obtained by polynomial fitting of detailed stellar evolutionmodels like the one presented by Schaller et al. [31]. The temperature tolerance win-dow for the biological productivity given in Eq. (3.3) was extended to the range be-

PAGE – 6 ============
52S. Franck et al.tween 0 °C and 100 °C in order to incorporate thermophiles [32]. Furthermore, forthis study a linear continental growth model was applied. To present the results of ourmodeling approach, we have delineated the HZ for an Earth-like extrasolar planet at a given but arbitrary distance R in the stellar mass-time plane (Fig. 3.3).Fig. 3.1 Sketch of our Earth system model. Arrows may describe both negative and positivefeedbacks.

PAGE – 8 ============
54S. Franck et al.pendent (in a first approximation, but see limiting effect 4) from R. So we ob-tain the limitation t < tmax.4. There have been discussions about the habitability of tidally locked planets. Wetake this complication into account and indicate the domain, where an Earth- like planet on a circular orbit experiences tidal locking. That domain consists of the set of (M,t) couples which generate an outer HZ boundary below the tidal-locking radius. This limitation is relevant for M <0.6 Ms. As an illustration wedepict the HZ for R = 2 AU in Fig. ConclusionsThe question, whether an Earth-like planet discovered outside the solar system mayaccommodate life, can be answered with the help of Figs. 3.2 and 3.3 if the mass and age of the central star as well as the planet‚s orbit are known. This is only the present state of the art in theoretical modeling of HZ. There are of course a lot prerequisites for such calculations that have been summarized recently by Lissauer [35].Fig. 3.3 Shape of the HZ (dark grey) in the mass-time plane for an Earth-like planet with photo-synthesis at distance R = 2 AU from the central star. The potential overall domain for accommo-dating the HZ of planets at some arbitrary distance is limited by a number of R-independentfactors that are explained in the text. (Figure slightly changed from Franck et al. [8], copyright bythe American Geophysical Union). PAGE - 9 ============ 3 Habitable Zones in Extrasolar Planetary Systems55A main assumption is that extraterrestrial life would be carbon-based and needs liq-uid water. In this way, the carbon-based life is connected with the global carbon cyclebetween the components of the whole system. The carbon cycle may operate only on a geologically active planet with liquid water. The present understanding of plate tec-tonics, however, is not sufficient to enable us to predict whether a given planet wouldexhibit such a phenomenon or not. First theoretical steps to tackle this problem were made by Solomatov and Moresi [36].Furthermore, planetary orbits are generally chaotic. For stable orbits over a long pe-riod of time a minimum separation is required in a system of Earth-like planets [37].Fortunately, this separation is comparable to the width of the HZ.To detect Earth-sized extrasolar planets, NASA and ESA are both designing spacemissions for the second decade of this century. Examples for such project are fiTerres-trial Planet Finderfl (TPF), i.e. an infrared interferometer operating in an orbit to detectEarth-like extrasolar planets and investigate their atmospheres (, and DARWIN, i.e. an infrared space interferometer tosearch for signs of life on any Earth-like planet found (,see Chap. 24, Foing).Acknowledgements. This work was supported by the German Science Foundation(DFG, grant IIC5-Fr910/9-3) and by the Ministry of Science, Research, and Culture ofthe State of Brandenburg/Germany (HSP III 1.6; 04/035).3.4 References1 S.S. Huang, Am. Sci. 47, 397 (1959).2 S.S. Huang, Sci. Am. 202(4), 55 (1960).3 S.H. Dole (Ed.) Habitable Planets for Man, Blaisdell, New York, 1964, 158 pp.4 I.S. Shklovskii, C. Sagan (Eds.) Intelligent Life in the Universe, Holden-Day, SanFrancisco, 1966, 509 pp.5 M.P. Golombek, Science 283, 1470 (1999).6 S. Franck, A. Block, W. von Bloh, C. Bounama, H.J. Schellnhuber, Y. Svrezhev,Planet. Space Sci. 48, 1099 (2000).7 D.M. Williams, J.F. Kasting, R.A. Wade, Nature 385, 234 (1997).8 S. Franck, A. Block, W. von Bloh, C. Bounama, M. Steffen, D. Schönberner, H.J.Schellnhuber, JGR-Planets 105, No. E1, 1651 (2000).9 M.H. Hart, Icarus 33, 23 (1978).10 M.H. Hart, Icarus 37, 351 (1979).11 J.C.G. Walker, P.B. Hays, J.F. Kasting, J. Geophys, Res. 86, 9776 (1981).12 J.F. Kasting, Icarus 74, 472 (1988).13 J.F. Kasting, D.P. Whitmire, R.T. Reynolds, Icarus 101, 108 (1993).14 J.F. Kasting, Origins of Life 27, 291 (1997).15 D.M. Williams, The stability of habitable planetary environments, A Thesis in As-tronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 1998, 140 pp.16 L.R. Doyle (Ed.), Circumstellar habitable zones, Proc. First International Confer-ence, Travis House Publications, Menlo Park, California, 1996, 525 pp. PAGE - 10 ============ 56S. Franck et al.17 S. Franck, A. Block, W. von Bloh, C. Bounama, H.J. Schellnhuber, Y. Svirezhev,Tellus 52B, No.1, 94 (2000).18 J. Schneider, Extrasolar Planets and Exobiology, http:// www. en-cycl.html, 2000.19 D.P. Bennett, S.H. Rhie, Astrophys. J. 472, 660 (1996).20 J.F. Kasting, O.B. Toon, J.B. Pollack, Sci. Am. 256, 90 (1988).21 M.C. Malin, K.S. Edgett, Science 288, 2330 (2000).22 F. Forget, R.T. Pierrehumbert, Science 278, 1273 (1997).23 K. Caldeira, J.F. Kasting, Nature 360, 721 (1992).24 S.A. Arrhenius, Philos. Mag. 41, 237 (1896).25 D.O. Gough, Sol. Phys. 74, 21 (1981).26 S. Franck, K. Kossacki, C. Bounama, Chem. Geol. 159, 305 (1999).27 T. Volk, Am. J. Sci. 287, 763 (1987).28 J.F. Kasting, Am. J. Sci. 284, 1175 (1984).29 I. Iben, Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 5, 571 (1967).30 I. Iben, Astrophys. J. 147, 624 (1967).31 G. Schaller, D. Schaerer, G. Meynet, A. Meader, Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser.96-2, 269 (1992).32 D. Schwartzman, M. McMenamin, T. Volk, Bio Sci. 43, 390 (1993).33 R. Kippenhahn, A. Weigert (Eds.) Stellar Structure and Evolution, Springer-Verlag,Berlin, 1990, 468 pp.34 B. Jakosky (Ed.) The Search for Life on Other Planets, Cambridge University Press,Cambridge, 1998, 326 pp.35 J.J. Lissauer, Nature 402, Supp., C11 (1999).36 V.S. Solomatov, L.N. Moresi, Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1907 (1997).37 J.J. Lissauer, Rev. Mod. Phys. 71, 835 (1999). 102 KB – 10 Pages