by J Krafess · Cited by 92 — 2 A hadith is the words of the prophet reported by his companions. The Quranic verses and the hadiths constitute the principal source of Islamic legislation.
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Volume 87 Number 858 June 2005 327Humanitarianism is one of the fundamental principles of the Muslim religion. The act of giving money or helping someone in distress is not left to the free choice of the believer, but is instead an obligation in the same way as is prayer, fasting during the month of Ramadan and the pilgrimage to Mecca. Acts of humanitarianism, whether limited to a donation in money or in kind, or of a more practical nature, such as distributing aid, are an essential element of religious practice for the Muslim. This religious dimension motivates, channels and intensifies the emotional and obligatory aspects of charity. The Quranic texts and the Prophet’s sayings calling for humanitarian action, defining and regulating it are numerous. They are either of an obligatory nature or a call for such work. To undertake a humanitarian act is a way of receiving help from The inﬂ uence of the Muslim religion in humanitarian aidJamal Krafess Jamal Krafess is the Director General of Islamic Relief – Switzerland Abstract Acts of humanitarianism are an essential element of religious practice for the Muslim. The Quranic and prophetic t exts cal ling for humanitarian action, defining and ordering it are numerous. They are either of an obligatory or an inciting nature and do not exclude the non-Muslims from humanitarian aid. For the Muslim to undertake a humanitarian act is a way of receiving help from heaven, of erasing sins, and of meriting Paradise. The mechanisms established by the religion (e.g. zakat, waqf, kaffara) had an unprecedented impact on the lives of the population: the freeing of slaves, a significant support for the most vulnerable, and the expansion of the educational and health-care system. Nowadays faith based Muslim NGOs follow these t exts to launch varied humanitarian programmes in different domains. : : : : : : :
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J. Krafess Œ The in˜ uence of the Muslim religion in humanitarian aid 328heaven, of erasing sins, escaping punishment, thanking God for his mercies and meriting Paradise. In the following article 1 we will see how the Muslim religion, by legal (Quran verses, hadiths) 2 and practical means, favours, stimulates and reinforces humanitarian action to make it popular, general and able to be exercised on a daily basis. Obligatory character The Muslim religion considers both humanitarian actions and the duty to help as religious obligations by which all Muslims, rich and poor, are bound. Quranic texts and hadiths sometimes have an exhortatory tone encouraging charity works. “ e rst to enter Paradise are those who do charitable works…” 3 At other times the texts are formulated as a clear order: “Rescue prisoners, feed the hun- gry and look after the ill…” 4 But there are also numerous texts which are severe in regard to those who do not help the poor, the orphans and the slaves (see below). The obligatory nature of charity does not end with the wording of texts; Islam has also put practical mechanisms in place to manage humanitarian aid. These arrangements are very precise, as in the case of zakat , which is explained in greater detail later in this text. Governments in the Muslim empire of the Caliphate organized human- itarian aid, sometimes using State power following advice from the religious scholars ( ulema) to intervene in critical situations either by collecting zakat or by distributing aid to the needy. After interpreting several Quranic texts reli- gious scholars, such as Ibn Hazm, decreed that if zakat does not fulfil the needs of the poor, the Muslim government has the prerogative to mobilize available resources (State, local authorities, collectives, businesses, individuals…). During the time of the second Caliph, Omar, there was dreadful famine throughout Arabia. He ordered governors from other provinces to make food collections and organize humanitarian convoys. Omar himself was involved in the distribu- tion and said, “if the famine was to continue, I would put one hungry person in each Muslim household because people would not disappear if they share…” 5On the basis of a hadith reported by Al Hakim, “If a person dies of hunger in a community, then all the residents of that community have put them- selves outside God’s and the Prophet’s protection…”, 6 the ulema decreed that in 1 e author does not limit humanitarian action to humanitarian assistance, but presents a very broad view of it as social welfare, emergency aid and sustainable developmen e quotations are taken from Arabic books; other than those from the Quran, their translation into French and English is by the author. 2 A hadith is the words of the prophet reported by his companion e Quranic verses and the hadiths constitute the principal source of Islamic legislation. 3 Al Bukhari, Aladabon Al Moufrad , Hadith No. 1020. 4 Sahih Al Bukhari, Sahih Al Jami’e , Vol. 4, p. 90. 5 Azzeddine Blik, Minhaj Assalihin e e path of the pious), Dar El Fatah, Beirut , 1985, p. 513. 6 Al Hakim, Almoustadrak .
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Volume 87 Number 858 June 2005 329such a case all the residents of the said community would be condemned and should be judged because they failed to give assistance. It should also be noted that this obligation to assist is not applicable only to Muslims in distress. Quranic texts and hadiths do not exclude the non- Muslim from humanitarian aid. This principle was often given tangible form. In the early years of hijra (the Hegira era, or Muslim calendar), there was a famine in Modar (Saudi Arabia). The Prophet organized a humanitarian convoy to help the inhabitants there who, at that time, were not converted to Islam. 7 Validating faith The Muslim religion insists on the translation of intent and conviction into concrete actions in all – including humanitarian – areas. It can be seen that whenever faith is evoked in the Quran, an injunction to react immediately fol- lows and charitable acts are especially encouraged. The expression “those who believed and who did charitable works…” is cited a considerable number of times in the Quran, for example, “Verily Man is in loss except such as have faith and do charitable works…” 8 and again “For those who believe and do charitable works is every blessedness and a beautiful place of final return…” 9 In fact the word “ sadaka ”, which means alms, comes from the Arabic word “ tasdik ” which means validation or confirmation. The Prophet stated, “alms is a proof…”, 10 a proof which shows the piety of a Muslim transformed into a concrete act of pity towards the poor. It is also a means of proving that the love of God purifies the believer’s heart of a love of materialism. Erasing of sins ( ka ara )The Muslim religion considers error to be human. The behaviour of man, whether in his relation to the Creator or in his relation to other creatures (humans, animals, plants…), cannot be perfect. His religion, however, force- fully recommends him to correct his mistakes and puts a series of means to do so at his disposal, such as repentance, submission to justice, and reparation for damage caused to others. Islam also es tablished a system allowing sins to be erased by performing humanitarian acts. In this regard the Prophet said: “Alms extinguish sins exactly as water extinguishes fire…” 11 ere are a number of dis- positions in the case of violating an oath, from which the following can be cited: 7 Al Baïhaki, Chouab Al Iman e paths of the faith), Dar El Koutoub Al Alilmya, Hadith No. 3319, Vol. 3, 1990, p. 199. 8 Quran , Sura 103, Verse 3 (the translations of Quranic verses are from the Quran edited by the Islamic Scienti c Research Direction on Fatwa of the Saudi Arabian Ministry of Isla airs). 9 Quran , Sura 13, Verse 29. 10 Ibn Rajab, Jamie Alouloum wa Al Hikam (Encyclopaedia of Sciences and Wisdom), Arrissala, 3rd edition, Vol. 2, 1991, p. 5. 11 Al Bukhari, Sahih Al Jami’e , Hadith No. 2951.
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J. Krafess Œ The in˜ uence of the Muslim religion in humanitarian aid 330“God will not punish you for what is unintentional in your oaths, but He will punish you for your deliberate oaths; for its expiation feed ten poor people on scale of the average of that you feed your own families, or clothe them or free a slave…” 12 In another example, in the case of voluntary failure to observe one of the days of fasting during Ramadan without a valid reason, the Muslim must fast for sixty consecutive days or feed sixty needy people. These dispositions which we call kaffara (erasing of sins) are also practised if the believer is inca- pacitated, for example by health, and consequently unable to perform a ritual during the fast and the pilgrimage. God’s satisfaction Being considered as a rite and an act of worship, the humanitarian act is under- taken to obtain, amongst other things, God’s satisfactio e Hadith of the Prophet states: “Amongst humans God loves those who help their fellow men…” 13 He adds, in another citation, “God created people with the predisposition to be helpful to others, they like to do good, God will spare them the punishments of the last day…”, 14 and again, “God loves the one who comes to the aid of the icted…” 15 In verses 133 and 134 of Sura 3, God reserves his love for the gener- ous benefactors: “Be quick in the race for forgiveness from your Lord and for the garden whose width is that of the whole of the heavens and the earth, prepared for the righteous, those who spend freely whether in prosperity or adversity who restrain anger and pardon all men, God loves those who do good…” God’s satisfaction is attained by, among other things, acceptance of prayer. The latter is intimately connected to solidarity between human beings. In a hadith Qudsi (God’s words reported by the Prophet), God announced: “I will only accept the prayers of he who is modest before me, who does not attack my creatures, who does not persist in sin, who invokes my name con- stantly and who is kind to the poor, the traveller in distress, the widow and the victim of disaster…” 16 Thus the vertical proximity with the Creator is par- tially determined by the horizontal pr oximity between individuals. This is indeed what we find in another hadith: “The generous are near to God, near the humans, near to Paradise…” 17Accountability in the hereafter The Muslim believes that life on earth is prolonged by other stages; these are the stay in the tomb, then the resurrection for the Day of Judgement and 12 Quran , Sura 5, Verse 89. 13 Al Sayuti, “ Al Jami’e Al Kabir ” ( e Great Index ), Dar Al Koutoub Al Massria, Hadith No. 9, Vol. 1, p. 409. 14 Tabarani compilation .15 Al Ka compilation , Vol. 4, p. 27. 16 Zubaidi compilation , Vol. 3, p. 21. 17 Sayuti, Al Jamie Saghir , Hadith No. 4804.
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Volume 87 Number 858 June 2005 331finally the eternal abode of either heaven or hell. The Muslim religion con- siders that life down here on earth is a transitory passage which prepares for eternity. The Muslim is called upon, in complete freedom, to live according to God’s commandments. These instructions regulate relations between the individual and his Creator but also with other creatures. These relations are evaluated, an accounting is kept of them, and the Muslim receives hassanates (plus points for good actions) or on the contrary sayiates (negative points for bad actions). Thus, the Muslim is judged on his intentions, his behaviour and his acts. Humanitarian actions which he undertakes will be subjected to the same accounting and will be rewarded. In Sura 57, Verse 18, of the Quran, there is the promise of increased rewards for the charitable persons: “Verily those who give alms, men and women, and lend to God a goodly loan, it shall be increased manifold, will be amply rewarded…” This verse underscores that despite the charitable act being destined for his fellow man, man will receive God’s reward. A humanitarian act is considered as a loan to God which will be repaid with significantly high interest. The Muslim can therefore be assured of the return on his investment, because he has lent to God. Another verse gives further confirmation of this: “Who is he that will lend to God a goodly loan so that He may multiply it to him many times…” 18 This multiplication can be as much as 700 times, or even more; “The likeness of those who spend their wealth in the way of God, is as the likeness of a grain of corn, it grows seven ears and each ear has a hundred grains. God gives manifold increase to whom He pleases…” 19 The Prophet’s hadiths on the utility of alms in the hereafter are numer- ous. To make a donation constitutes a protection against punishment in the grave and the tests on the Day of Judgement, as illustrated in the following hadith: “For those who have given, alms extinguish the heat of the grave. On the Day of Resurrection the believer will be able to protect himself in the shade of his alms…” 20In the same way many Quranic texts and statements by the Prophet are a serious warning for those who forget to carry out their duties: “To those who hoard gold or money and do not spend them in the path of God, announce them severe punishment, on the day when this treasure will be heated in the fire of Hell and with it will be branded their foreheads, their flanks and their backs…” 21 Another verse describes the punishment for him who does not believe in God and who does not feed the needy: “Seize him and fetter him, then throw him in the blazing fire. Then fasten him with a chain whereof the length is seventy cubits. Verily he used not to believe in God, the most Great and urged not on the feeding of the poor…” 2218 Quran , Sura 1, Verse 245. 19 Quran , Sura 1, Verse 261. 20 Al Baïhaki, Chouab Al Iman , Dar El Koutoub Al Alilmya, Vol. 3, Hadith No. 3347, Beirut, 1990, p. 212. 21 Quran , Sura 9, Verse 35. 22 Quran , Sura 69, Verse 34.
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J. Krafess Œ The in˜ uence of the Muslim religion in humanitarian aid 332Giving help to protect oneself against misfortune Muslims also make donations to the disinherited with the aim of protecting themselves against misfortune. The texts and the Prophet’s prescriptions on this are many: “Charitable acts protect against a terrible death…” 23 and “Charity shuts seventy doors of evil…”, 24 and again “Charity extinguishes God’s anger and repels a terrible death…” 25 It used to be widespread in Muslim societies to make a donation when someone wa s ill. All the while using the medical means available, the sick person or his family made a donation to the poor so as to benefit from God’s mercy. The Prophet’s recommendation encourages this: “Protect your money by giving zakat and treat your sick by charity…” 26 Therefore Muslims make donations in very diverse circumstances: when faced with a crisis, on acquiring property, on harvesting, on making a commercial transaction, before travelling. Donations transcend time Religious texts show that humanitarian acts count for all time: a donation is useful for the donor in terms of the past, the present and the future. A Muslim can, for instance, make a donation which erases past sins or procures a reward for a parent already dead. After the sudden death of his mother, a man went to ask the Prophet if his mother would be rewarded if he made a donation in her name. The Prophet replied in the affirmative. 27 As for the present and the future, the texts already cited underscore the importance and the diversity of rewards which can be received for accomplishing a humanitarian action. Global approach Religious texts motivating humanitarian action are very diverse and relate to all areas of aid. Food aid and the ﬁ ght against famine A saying of the Prophet (hadith) states: “the best of alms is to feed the hungry…” 28 During the Feast of Sacrifice, when each Muslim family sacrifices a sheep, Prophetic tradition recommends that they eat one third, offer one third to friends and give one third to the needy. Likewise, if a Muslim is unable to 23 Al Hakim, Al Moustadrak , p. 124. 24 Tabarani, Al Mouajam Al Kabir , ( e Great Index ), Vol. 4, Hadith No. 4402. 25 Al Baïhaki, Chouab Al Iman , Dar El Koutoub Al Alilmya, Vol. 3, Hadith No. 3351, Beirut, 1990, p. 213. 26 Tabarani, Moujama’a azzawaide , Vol. 3, p. 63. 27 Al Ha d, Fath Al Bary , Vol. 3, Beirut , Hadith No. 1388, p. 325. 28 Al Baïhaki, Chouab Al Iman , Dar El Koutoub Al Alilmya, Vol. 3, Hadith No. 3367, Beirut, 1990, p. 217.
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J. Krafess Œ The in˜ uence of the Muslim religion in humanitarian aid 334 e rst refugees it dealt with were those Muslims persecuted by the non-believers in Me e Prophet told them to take refuge in Abyssinia (Ethiopia). When the persecution reached an unbearable level, the Prophet and his companions decided to emigrate to Medina, where a number of Muslims and sympathisers welcomed th e Prophet established a golden rule for the treatment of refugees. He decreed the principle of fraternization between the “ ansar ” (“helpers”, inhabitants of Medina defending the Prophet’s cause) and the “ muhajirun ” (“emigrants”, refugees from Mecca). According to this pact, each “ ansar ” should take care of one “ muhajir ”. is care included food, clothing, shelter and any other assistance needed until the “ muhajir ” could look a er himself. In a hadith reported by al Hakim, the Prophet said that God displays his clemency and allows entrance to Paradise for those who give shelter to the poor. As explained in the part about zakat , “the wayfarer (in distress)”or “the passing stranger” nition which applies to a refugee) is one of the eight categories able to be t from zakat e religion considers that help given to a refugee is no more than his right: “And render to the kindred their due rights, as also to those in want and to the traveller (in distress)…” 37Long-term development projects In addition to emergency aid and other assistance, the Muslim religion also encourages humanitarian acts which will bring about lasting change in people’s lives. There are numerous hadiths on this subject, in one of which, according to Aicha (the Prophet’s wife), the Prophet says: “the good work which God likes the best is the one which lasts, even if it is small…” 38 In another hadith he affirms the continuity of the reward even after death: “When a man dies his works stop bringing him a reward with the exception of three actions: continuous charity, a useful science and a pious son who invokes God…” 39 and again “He who gives alms is rewarded for as long as it is lasting…” 40 Thus the length of the reward is connected to the durability of the charitable action. Long-term actions encour- aged by the religion include, for instance, those destined to provide water and food, and the gift of tools. In a hadith 41 the Prophet gave examples of acts whose rewards continue after death, such as rehabilitating irrigation, sinking a well and planting trees. In another he states “If a Muslim cultivates a plantation he will be rewarded, until the Day of Judgement, every time a human, an animal or a bird eats the fruit of the plantation…” 42 e Prophet also promised a lasting reward for the sinking of wells: “Whoever digs a well will be rewarded until the Day of Judgement every time a human, a genie or an animal drinks from that well…” 43 37 Quran , Sura 17, Verse 26. 38 Muslim, Sahih Muslim , Hadith No. 1305 39 Al Baïhaki, Chouab Al Iman , Hadith No. 3447, Vol. 3, p. 247. 40 Tabarani compilation .41 Al Albani, Sahih Al Jam’ie , Hadith No. 3602, Vol. 1, p. 476. 42 Sayouti, Al Jamie Saghir , Hadith No. 8873. 43 Al Bukhari, Sahih Al Jami’e , Hadith No. 5757
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Volume 87 Number 858 June 2005 335He even promised Paradise to one who dug a well in the Rawma region which suffered from a terrible shortage of water: “He who sinks a well in Rawma will go to Paradise…” 44 In another statement, 45 the Prophet considered that the best donation to a poor man was a camel which gives a lot of milk and is on the verge of giving birth. Numerous Muslim humanitarian organizations have developed this type of donation (cows, goats) and the results have been very positive, espe- cially in India, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Somalia, etc. Micro-credit Everyone involved in development is unanimous about the effectiveness of micro-credits in eradicating poverty. Providing a work tool or a credit that allows the impoverished to start a remunerated activity is a means of tack- ling the problem at source and avoids assistance without end. In this area Islamic religious sources contain strong incitements. The Prophet stated: “He who gives a dairy animal (camel, cow) or who gives a loan has the identical reward as one who frees a slave” 46 He added: “Every credit is alms…” 47 Other texts invite Muslims to be forgiving towards a borrower in difficulty, as in the following hadith: “He who wishes to be spared horrible tests on the Day of Judgement has only to make it easier for the borrower or erase his debts…” 48 Another text states that “each overdue day is double charity…” 49 In other cita- tions the Prophet even promised Paradise and escape from the flames of hell as a reward for the Muslim who cancels a debt or prolongs the time allowed for repayment. Finally, it should be noted that in the Muslim religion there is no interest payable on loans. Zakat Zakat is a fundamental pillar of Islam (the third) and of the same importance as the profession of faith, praying, fasting during Ramadan and pilgrimage to Mecca. Zakat could be defined as a system which organizes the transfer of money from the well-off to the poor and needy. In money terms, for example, every Muslim should donate 2.5% of his annual means on condition that this is higher than the Nissab limit 50 and that this money has been in his possession for more than one year. Where agricultural crops are concerned, the requisite amount to be deducted is 10% or 5% of the harvest, depending on whether irri- gation is natural or artificial. 44 Al Ha d, Al Fith , Vol. 5, p. 510. 45 Al Bukhari, Lou’loue wa marjane (Treasures and Pearls), Hadith No. 599, Vol. 1, p. 211. 46 Al Ha d, Fath Al Bary , Dar Al Koutoub Al Ilumia, Vol. 3, Hadith No. 1388, p. 325. 47 Al Baïhaki, Chouab Al Iman , Dar Al Koutoub Al Alilmya, Beirut , Hadith No. 3563, Vol. 3, 1990, p. 284. 48 Al Mundiri, Targuib wa Tarhib , Dar Ibn Kattir, Beirut , Hadith No. 1324, p. 687. 49 Ibid ., Hadith No.1329, p. 690. 50 Nissab is property equivalent to 85g of gold, currently at 900 euros.
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J. Krafess Œ The in˜ uence of the Muslim religion in humanitarian aid 336Zakat constitutes a religious obligation as important as praying, which is obligatory five times a day. Indeed, they are both cited together thirty times in the Quran, as for example in this verse: “These verses in a Book full of wis- dom, which is a guide and mercy to the good doers, those who establish regular prayer, and give regular charity, and have (in their hearts) the assurance of the hereafter…” 51 The imperative nature of this levy is noted in several verses, and especially as follows: “Of their goods take their alms, that so they might purify and sanctify them…”, 52 or again “Establish regular prayer, and give regular char- ity, and loan to God, a beautiful loan, and whatever good you send forth for your souls, you shall find it in God’s presence – you better and greater in reward…” 53 The prophet Mohammed also clearly indicated the obligatory aspect of zakat when he sent his emissary to Yemen: “Inform them that God made it obligatory to take alms from the rich to give to the poor…” 54 By means of a public institu- tion which collects zakat , the Muslim State ensures that this is wholly respected and will resort to force to collect it. Muslim lawyers have noted that the obligation exists even a er death, when the heirs must pay. In view of its importance (in terms of rights of the poor), zakat should be paid before all other debts. Abou Bakr, the Caliph elected after the Prophet’s death, went so far as to declare war on certain tribes that refused to pay it. Zakat is not merely a religious obligation but also a right of the poor, as the Quran confirms: “And in their properties there was the right of the beggar and the needy… ” 55 This notion of right returns in another verse: “And those on whose wealth is a recognised right…” 56 It should be underlined that the “rec- ognised right” indicates a sum calculated in an objective and scientific manner. Indeed, parallel to the setting up of structures to collect and distribute zakat , a complete science has evolved to calculate and determine the conditions of this payment according to different riches accumulated by Muslims (silver, gold, profit from commerce, stock-breeding, agriculture and mines). The eight categories of zakat beneficiaries are clearly defined in the Quran, Sura 9, Verse 60: “Alms are for the poor and the needy, and for those employed to administer the funds, for those whose hearts have been reconciled (to the cause of Islam), for freedom of slaves, for those who are in debt, in the cause of God, and for the wayfarer in distress. Thus is it ordained by God and God is full of knowledge and wisdom…” This verse leaves considerable latitude for humanitarian workers to allow not only people in emergency situations (ref- ugees, disaster victims), but also those in need of long-term aid (the indebted and the needy) to benefit from zakat .Experts in fiqh (religious law) say that zakat should cover all the benefi- ciary’s needs: social needs, food, clothing, shelter, health and education. Zakat 51 Quran , Sura 31, Verse 4. 52 Quran , Sura 9, Verse 103. 53 Quran , Sura 73, Verse 20. 54 Al Ha d, Fath Al Bary , Beirut, Hadith No. 2778, Vol. 5, p. 510. 55 Quran , Sura 51, Verse 19. 56 Quran , Sura 70, Verse 24.
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Volume 87 Number 858 June 2005 337should be distributed in the country where it is collected, except when there is extreme need in another country (famine, natural disaster, war). According to the Maliki school, 57 the donation should be sufficient to cover the needs of a poor person throughout a whole year. Other schools, like the Chafi, advise giv- ing enough so that the recipient no longer requires assistance. Omar, the second Caliph, said in this regard: “If you give, make them rich…” 58All historians are agreed that the zakat system gave rise to exemplary social cohesion and significantly improved the standard of living for the poor. Together with other incitements, it enabled in particular the emancipation of former slaves in Arabia thirty years after the arrival of Islam. Waqf Waqf (continuous alms), according to Muslim tradition, signifies “imprison- ment of bequeathed wealth.” It consists of making an endowment of property or rendering it inalienable for the benefit of a religious foundation or the com- mon good; the structures concerned will assume the responsibility of managing the endowment and distributing the inco me or usufruct amongst the needy. The waqf must be real property or quantifiable riches. This property or wealth (money, property, shares, etc.) should yield a continuous and, in contrast to consumable wealth, a lasting profit. Texts as well as the Prophet’s practice establishing waqf are numerous. Remember the hadith cited above: “When a man dies his works stop bringing him a reward with the exception of three actions: continuous charity, a useful science and a pious son who invokes God …” 59All actions providing a long-term profit are considered continuous alms. Omar Ibn Khattab (the second Caliph) owned a piece of land to which he was attached, and wanted to donate it. He went to ask the advice of the Prophet, who advised him to block it for the needy: “If you want you can block the capital and give its fruits as alms. However, the land cannot then be sold, given or inherited by descendants…” Some eighty of the Prophet’s companions made similar bequests. Since then the waqf practice has extended to all Muslim societies, and the volume of bequests has become so considerable that the majority of Muslim countries have ministers who work exclus ively on the management of waqf (often called houbouss ministers). Waqf management comprises both the technical (upkeep, production, administration) and the distribution aspect (financing of charitable and social works). Like the zakat , the waqf provides for the 57 At the beginning of the Mu ve schools of jurisprudence, which were inspired by the Quran and the traditions of the Prophet Mohammed, developed to legislate on all questions concerning religion and the economic, political and social life of Muslim ey are the Maliki, Cha , Hana , Hanbali and Jafari schools. 58 Abu Ubaid Al Kassim, Al-Amwal (wealth ), p. 565. 59 See op. cit . (note 39).
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